Background: The territory of Northern Rhodesia was controlled by the ‘South Africa Company’ monopoly until Britain took control in 1923. In the 1920s and 1930s the progress of the country’s mining industry accelerated its development and spurred immigration. Northern Rhodesia changed its name to Zambia after gaining independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s falling copper prices and a prolonged drought have taken a toll on the economy. Elections held in 1991 symbolized the end of one-party rule, but the 1996 vote revealed egregious persecution of opposition parties.
Location: South Africa, east of Angola.
Geographical coordinates: 30° 00′ W. 15° 00’S sh.
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 752,614 km2; land surface area: 740,724 km2; water surface area: 11,890 km2
Comparative area: slightly larger than the state of Texas.
Land borders: total length: 5,664 km; with neighboring states: with Angola 1,110 km, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, with Malawi 837 km, with Mozambique 419 km, with Namibia 233 km, with Tanzania 338 km, with Zimbabwe 797 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: tropical; varies with height above sea level; the rainy season lasts from October to November.
Relief: mostly high plateau; there are hills and mountains.
Maximum and minimum elevations: lowest point: Zambezi River 329 m; highest point: unnamed hill in the Mafinga Hills region 2,301 m
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower resources.
Land use: arable land: 7%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 40%; forests and plantations: 39%; others: 14% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 460 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: Tropical storms (November to April).
Actual environmental problems: air pollution in the area of mineral deposits development and their processing, leading to acid rain; poaching, which seriously threatens the populations of rhinos, elephants, antelopes, lions and other large members of the cat family; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate handling of drinking water supplies, posing a threat to public health.
International environmental agreements: member: Biodiversity, Climate change Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Law of the sea, Nuclear testing ban, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands Signed but not ratified: Kyoto Protocol.
Note to the section “Geography”: has no access to the sea.
Population: 9,770,199; note: estimates for this country take into account rising AIDS deaths; due to the spread of AIDS, life expectancy, population size and population growth may actually be lower, and child mortality and overall mortality rates correspondingly higher; there may also be changes in age structure and sex ratios (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 47.36% (male 2,324,128; female 2,303,349); 15 to 64 years old: 50.14% (male 2,433,250; female 2,465,747); over 65: 2.5% (male 105,694; female 138,031 (2001 est.). Population
growth: 1.93% (2001 est.). ) .Mortality:
21.97 deaths/1000 people (2001 est.
Migration: -0.16 people/1000 people (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; up to 15 years old: 1.01 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.99 male/female, over 65 years old: 0.77 male/female, for the general population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 90.89 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy: General population: 37.29 years Male: 37.06 years Female: 37.53 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.53 children/woman (2001 est.)
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 19.95% (1999 est.)
Number of people infected with HIV: 870,000 (1999 est.)
AIDS-related deaths: 99,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Zambian; adjective: Zambian.
Ethnic groups: Africans 98.7%, Europeans 1.1%, other 0.2%.
Believers: Christians 50-75%, Muslims and Hindus 24-49%, adherents of indigenous beliefs 1%.
Language(s): English (official), the main local dialects are Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lun-da, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga and about 70 other local dialects.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write in English; for the general population: 78.2%; men: 85.6%; women: 71.3% (1995 est.).
conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia; former: Northern Rhodesia.
State structure: republic. See politicsezine.com to know more about Zambia Political System.
Administrative division: 9 provinces: Western, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, North Western, Northern, Southern, Central.
Independence: October 24, 1964 (until 1964 – protectorate of Great Britain).
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (since 1964).
Constitution: adopted August 2, 1991
Legal system: based on English common and customary law; provides for judicial review of legislative acts by a special constitutional council; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Frederick CHILUBA (since 2 November 1991) Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since May 4, 2001); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of government: President Frederick CHI-LUBA (since 2 November 1991); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since May 4, 2001); the president is both head of state and head of government;
Government: a cabinet of ministers appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held in October 2001); the vice president is appointed by the president; election results: Frederic CHILUBA re-elected president; percentage of votes – Frederick CHILUBA 72.5%, Dean MUNGO’M-BA 12.6%, Humphrey MU-LEMBA 7%, AkashambatvaLEVANIKA (Akasham-batwa LEWANIKA) 4.7%, Chama CHAKOMBOKA (Cha-ma CHAKOMBOKA) 3.2%.
Legislature: unicameral National Assembly (150 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections: last held 18 November 1996 (next to be held in December 2001); election results: distribution of votes by parties – no data; distribution of seats by party – MMD 131, NP 5, Zadeco 2, AZ 2, independents 10.
Judiciary: Supreme Court (highest court of appeal; judges appointed by the president); High Court (unrestricted jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases).
Political parties and leaders: Agenda for Zambia, AZ (Akashambatwa LEVANIKA); Labor Party (LP) (Chibiza MFUNI); Liberal Progressive Front (LPF) (Roger CHONGWE, president); Movement for the Democratic Process (MDP) (Chama CHACOM BOCA [Cha-ma SNACOM WOCA]); Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) (Frederic CHILUBA); National Party (NP) (Daniel LISULO); United National Independence Party (UNIP) (Tilyenji KAUNDA); United Party for National Development (UPND) (Anderson MAZOKA); Democratic Congress of Zambia (Zadeco) (JERRY Ideas [Eden JERRY]).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: head of mission: Ambassador Atan SHANSONGA (Atan SHAN-SONGA); office: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; phone:  (202) 265-9717 to 265-9719; fax: [\] (202) 332-0826.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador David DUNN; embassy: Independence Avenue/United Nations Avenue; mailing address: R. O. Box 31617, Lusaka; phone:  (1) 250-955; fax:  (1) 252-225.
Flag Description: a green rectangle with three vertical stripes of red (hoist side), black and orange below the soaring orange eagle (on the outer edge of the flag).