While in North of the coast that looks towards the Black Sea is united, in S. the chains that reach from the Euphrates to the Aegean (Taurus) form two convexities that correspond to the gulfs of Adalia and Mersina-Alexandretta, and to the plains of Pamphylia and Cilicia. These are mountains of harsh nature and a harsh climate, but which form a barrier of modest strength. Below, the climate is Mediterranean with abundant and sometimes violent rainfall in the winter months, generally with mild temperatures; in the high areas, however, a lot of snow falls; the summer months, on the other hand, are devoid of rainfall and the heat is very intense in the plains, so it is necessary to climb upwards to find some refreshment and escape malaria. The vegetation is subtropical, both that of the plains (cotton, sugar cane) and that of the hills (orange, olive tree, pomegranate, vine); oleanders, myrtle, carob, pistachios also grow luxuriantly, while the higher slopes are covered with conifers and brooms. The property is sometimes made up of large estates, while on the other hand horticulture is also widespread and it would be more so if the workforce were more abundant. About one twentieth of the territory is reserved for agriculture, of which 75.9% for cereals, 2.3% for legumes, 21.8% for industrial plants. Agricultural machinery has found widespread use in more recent times. The Taurus line is very useful for communications and exports can also make use of the ports of Mersina and Adalia. In the upper area, Lycia to the west has a distinct position, mainly calcareous, with peaks exceeding 3000 meters and frequent karst phenomena, wild region where feudal life still prevails as the population is grouped into isolated cantons. The Taurus (or Cilicia Trachea) is for the most part made up of a vast plateau of karst nature (Miocene limestone), 300 km long. and about fifty wide in the central part, more than 2000 m high. (with a maximum of 3910 in the Demirkasïk, Ala Daǧi group). The region is deserted, stony, deforested by man, carved by gorges (the Cilician doors are well known: Kölek Boǧazi); here and there there is some sinkhole ((with a maximum of 3910 in the Demirkasïk, Ala Daǧi group). The region is deserted, stony, deforested by man, carved by gorges (the Cilician doors are well known: Kölek Boǧazi); here and there there is some sinkhole ((with a maximum of 3910 in the Demirkasïk, Ala Daǧi group). The region is deserted, stony, deforested by man, carved by gorges (the Cilician doors are well known: Kölek Boǧazi); here and there there is some sinkhole (tava), where the Iuruchi come to graze in the summer. The Antitauro, 200 km long, is lower, more wooded, with rocks of different facies and ages and with a rather mixed population, dedicated to breeding, which preferably dwells in high villages. For Turkey 2015, please check dentistrymyth.com.
The northern part, which lowers towards the Black Sea with a rather united coast, interrupted only by some deltas and some eruptive islets, is formed by a series of chains, between which longitudinal valleys (called ova), parallel to the coast, important for communications between the West and the East, while to pass from the sea to the inland plateaus, it is necessary to overcome numerous passes. The climate is favorable for crops, given the abundance of rainfall, which falls in E. in all seasons, while in the West they are scarce in summer, so that the climate becomes more rough. The vegetal mantle is luxuriant: at the bottom Mediterranean (olive, orange, lemon) and tropical (tea, in the most sheltered parts), between 400 and 1300 m. a high forest with an undergrowth formed by rhododendrons, azaleas, ivy, then between 1300 and 1900 m. a forest of large trees with scarce undergrowth, and higher up (over 2000 m.) meadows and pastures. Of great importance is the forestry economy (sawmills), arboriculture (especially hazelnut), and the cultivation of tobacco, while on the other hand, the abundance of woods leads to the construction of wooden houses. The mountain ranges, formed by terrains of different ages, high from 3500 (to E.) to 2350 m. (to the W), very subject to erosion due to the abundant rainfall, enclose numerous isolated compartments, often separated by deep gorges. From east to west, Pontus and Paplagonia follow one another, while Bithynia overlooks the Marmara Sea as well as the Black Sea. The average density of these regions (30.5 residents per sq. Km.), Despite the scarce communications and the complicated and fragmentary morphology, is somewhat higher than the state average. About 5.5% of the area is cultivated by industrious families; the property is very divided. Among cereals, corn prevails in the E., wheat and oats prevail in the West (in Paflagonia). L’ livestock farming is of only limited importance. The trade, given the scarcity of roads, takes place through the ports of Samsun and Trebizond, but the sea is often stormy. The mineral resources are enormous (Zonguldak-Eraclea coal). Summer nomadism towards mountain farms is widespread.
The central part of Anatolia, around 800-1000 meters high, was leveled before the deposition of Neogenic materials, of lake origin, which cover a large part of the surface and under which old lands sprout different, but especially Cretaceous limestones and crystalline schists. In the late Miocene and Pliocene it took place especially in the SE. a volcanic activity of some importance. The innermost part of the plateau (Licaonia) is occupied by closed basins of tectonic origin, once more extensive, separated from each other by low ridges and sometimes occupied by some residual lake, so that large areas are in difficult conditions of drain. Normal erosion had created a hydrographic network, which is now fossilized, both due to the development of karst and because it is part of the plateau has become a tributary of the peripheral seas and especially the Black Sea. The climate is rather rough, with marked continental characteristics, impetuous winds, considerable diurnal waste, scarce rainfall (Conia: 36 days a year and 180 mm.), which fall by preference in spring, but also in the other seasons (in winter in the form of snow). Common aspect of the spontaneous vegetation is the prairie ad Artemisia, except where saline encrustations prevail; few trees, limited to rows of poplars. The coastal chains that limit the plateau are connected to it on their internal side with a plateau that forms the Pisidia, an isolated region, with closed basins and large lakes, located where the Taurus comes into contact with the Lycian massif at N. della Pamphylia, while towards NO. Phrygia extends between Pisidia and Bithynia, formed by massifs located between the Neogenic surfaces. The eastern highlands, isolated between higher ranges, include Cappadocia, a region of vast steppes, not very accessible. The prairies lend themselves well both to the cultivation of cereals, which can withstand the cold winters and summer droughts, and to the breeding of livestock (especially sheep and goats), which summer finds shelter from prolonged drought with shifts in height. About one twentieth of the soil is cultivated, generally extensive, except in the irrigated areas located around Conia, Angora and Cesarea.