Tanzania Politics

Tanzania Politics, Population and Geography

General information: In 1964, shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged into a single state, called Tanzania. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first elections since the 1970s. democratic elections. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular resistance have caused two elections won by the ruling party since 1995 to be dubious by international observers.


Location: East Africa, Indian Ocean coast, between Kenya and Mozambique.
Geographical coordinates: 6° 00′ S. latitude, 35° 00′ E
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 945,087 km2; land surface area: 886,037 km2; water surface area: 59,050 km2; note: including Mafia, Pemba and Zanzibar islands.
Comparative area: slightly more than twice the area of ​​the state of California.
Land borders: total length: 3,402 km; with neighboring states: with Burundi 451 km, with Kenya 769 km, with Malawi 475 km, with Mozambique 756 km, with Rwanda 217 km, with Uganda 396 km, with Zambia 338 km.
Coastline: 1,424 km.
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles. territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: varies from tropical along the coast to temperate in the highlands.
Terrain: plains on the coast; central plateau; hills in the north and south.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m; highest point: Mount Kilimanjaro 5,895 m.
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphate, iron ore, coal, diamonds, precious stones, gold, natural gas, nickel.
Land use: arable land: 3%; cultivated land: 1%; pastures: 40%; forests and plantations: 38%; other: 18% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 1,500 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: floods on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought.
Current environmental issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; the destruction of coral reefs, threatening populations of marine fauna; recent droughts have taken their toll on already weak agriculture.
International environmental agreements: member: Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Law of the sea, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands. signed but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban.
Geography note: The summit of Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest point on the African continent.


Population: 36,232,074; note: estimates for this country take into account rising AIDS deaths; due to the spread of AIDS, life expectancy, population size and population growth may actually be lower, and child mortality and overall mortality rates correspondingly higher; there may also be changes in age structure and sex ratios (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 44.76% (male 8,152,438; female 8,063,520); 15 to 64 years old: 52.35% (male 9,387,737; female 9,581,518); over 65: 2.89% (male 473,498; female 573,363) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2.61% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 39.65 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 12.95 deaths / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Migration: -0.64 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; under 15: 1.01 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.98 male/female; over 65: 0.83 male/female; for the general population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 79.41 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 51.98 years; men: 51.04 years; women: 52.95 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 5.42 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 8.09% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 1.3 million (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 140,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Tanzanian; adjective: Tanzanian.
Ethnic groups: on the mainland – the indigenous African population 99% (95% of which belong to the Bantu peoples; there are more than 130 tribes), other 1% (Asians, Europeans and Arabs); Zanzibar – Arabs, Africans, descendants of Arabs and Africans.
Believers: on the mainland – Christians 45%, Muslims 35%, adherents of local beliefs 20%; Zanzibar is over 99% Muslim.
Languages): Swahili (official), English (official; main language of trade, diplomacy and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), numerous local languages; note: Swahili is the native language of the Bantu peoples of Zanzibar and the coast of Tanzania; although Swahili is a Bantu language in structure and origin, its vocabulary is borrowed from many sources, including Arabic and English; Swahili has become the main language of communication among the inhabitants of Central and East Africa; the native languages ​​of the majority of the inhabitants are one of the local languages).
Literacy: Definition: Persons aged 15 and over who can read and write in Swahili, English or Arabic; for the general population: 67.8%; men: 79.4%; women: 56.8% (1995 est.).


conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania;
conventional short form: Tanzania; former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
State structure: republic. See politicsezine.com to know more about Tanzania Political System.
Capital: Dar es Salaam; note: some government offices have been moved to the city of Dodoma, which is planned to become the new capital; The National Assembly currently sits in Dodoma.
Administrative divisions: 25 regions: Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Center South, Zanzibar City West, Karega, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Mwanza, Morogoro, Mtwara, Pemba-North, Pemba-South, Puani, Ruvuma, Rukva, Sin-gida, Tabora, Tanga, Shinyanga.
Independence: since April 26, 1964; Tanganyika became independent on December 9, 1961 (until 1961 – the guardianship of Great Britain under a UN mandate); Zanzibar became independent on December 19, 1963 (until 11963 – a British protectorate); Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar on April 26, 1964, forming the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed the United Republic of Tanzania on October 29, 1964.
National holiday: Unification Day, April 26 (1964).
Constitution: adopted April 25, 1977; major amendments October 1984.
Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts is limited to questions of interpretation of laws; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995) Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since November 23, 1995); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of government: President Benjamin William MCAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Omar Ali JUMA (since November 23, 1995); note – the president is both head of state and head of government; note: Zanzibar elects a president who is the head of government and is responsible for the internal affairs of Zanzibar; On November 23, 1995, Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to this post;
government: a cabinet of ministers, including the prime minister, appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a five-year term on the same ticket; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held in October 2005); the prime minister is appointed by the president; election results: percentage of votes – Benjamin William MCAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna PIPUMBA (Ibrahim HarunaUPUMBA) 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MRE-ME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO ) 4.2%.
Legislature: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge) (274 members, of which 232 are elected by popular vote, 37 seats are reserved for women appointed by the president and 5 for members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; all members serve a five-year term); note – in addition to laws in force throughout the territory of the United Republic of Tanzania, the assembly adopts laws in force only in the mainland of the country; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to pass laws that apply only to the territory of Zanzibar (the House of Representatives of Zanzibar consists of 50 members directly elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held in October 2005); election results: for the National Assembly: distribution of votes by party – no data; distribution of seats by parties – CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, representatives of Zanzibar 5; House of Representatives of Zanzibar: distribution of votes by party – no data; distribution of seats by parties – CCM34, CUF16.
Judiciary: Permanent Commission of Inquiry (the official organization that hears private complaints against state institutions), the Court of Appeal (consisting of a chairman and four judges); High Court (judges are appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions of the country); district courts, courts of first instance.
Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha De-mokrasia on Maendeleo (CHADEMA) (Bob MAKANI, Chairman); Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Revolutionary Party) (SSM) (Benjamin William MCAPA); Civic United Front (CUF) (Seif Sharif HAMAD, General Secretary); Democratic Party (not registered) (Reverend Christopher MTIKLA); National Convention for Creation and Reform (NCCR) (Kassim MAGUTU); Tanzania Labor Party (TLP) (Augustine Lyatonga MREMA); Union for Multi-Party Democracy (UMD) (leader – NA); United Democratic Party (UDP) (John CHEYO).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, YuM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Mustafa Salim NYANG’ANYI; office: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; phone: [1] (202) 939-6125; fax: [1] (202) 797-7408.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Chargé d’Affaires Wanda NESBITT; embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam; mailing address: R. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam; phone: [255] (51) from 666010 to 666015; fax: [255] (51) 666701.
Description of the flag: Divided diagonally by a black stripe with yellow edges running from the bottom corner of the hoist; the upper triangle (with the base at the pole) is green, the lower one is blue.

Tanzania Politics