From the origins to the 19th century
According to Localcollegeexplorer, among the remains of ancient monuments emerge parts of the castle of Nitra (8th-9th century), the place where the first wooden church was built dating back to 830. Works in the Romanesque style lasted until the middle of the 13th century. (cathedral in Spišská Kapitula) while the first Gothic works occur with the arcades of the monastic complex of Sahy and then, progressively, with the churches of the mendicant orders (Franciscan church in Bratislava; Dominican church in Košice). From 1378, work began on the most important Gothic cathedral of Slovakia Elisabetta in Košice, completed in the middle of the 15th century. In the rest of the Slovakia, Gothic styles combine with the court architecture of M. Corvino (as in the cathedral of Bratislava, completed by the Viennese H. Puchspam). Commercial developments led to significant urban settlements, of which the center of Bardejov remains an authentic example, also thanks to its town hall (1505-11) which marks the transition from Gothic to Renaissance styles. ● The Renaissance constitutes a significant chapter of Slovak architecture, influenced by Budapest and from some centers of Silesia and Poland; reflections of these are had in the building activity promoted by the Hungarian magnates and characterized by a series of small castles or mansions, consisting of three or four wings, corner bastions, internal courtyards with arcades (in Červený Kameň, 1533-37; in Bratislava, 1552 -70; in Zvolen, 1571-74 etc.). The first Baroque examples are found in the university church of St. John the Baptist in Trnava (P. and A. Spezza, 1629-37). Baroque works of the late 17th century. can be found in the squares of small Slovak towns (Zilina, Banská Štiavnica, Trenčín) where the bourgeois houses have facades that rework traditional structures in the Baroque style. Notable, in this style, also influenced by Vienna: church of SS. Trinità, on an elliptical plan (begun 1717); Capuchin church (1717) in Bratislava; Franciscan abbey church (FA Pilgram, 1745-65) in Jasov. Examples of Baroque and Rococo civil buildings are Palazzo Appónyi (1761-62) and the palace built by GB Martinelli (1753); Grassalkovich Palace (J. and A. Mayerhoffer, 1760-65); Mirbach Palace (1768-70); Illéshá Palace (1769), all in Bratislava. Neoclassical buildings are the primatial palace in Bratislava (M. Hefele, 1771-81) and the town hall of Trnava (1793). The importance of neoclassical painting and sculpture is scarce, with a predominance of Viennese and Berlin influences. ● The 19th century, in addition to the persistence of the neoclassical style, saw the emergence of neo-Gothic episodes not only in some castles and churches but also in sporadic public buildings. The empire style characterizes the municipal theater (1831) in Trnava, while eclectic expressions, which intertwine Renaissance and Moorish forms, are found in Kezmarok (T. Hansen, Lutheran church, 1879-92) or in the thermal baths (1886) in Trenčianské Teplice. An example of art noveau is St. Elizabeth in Bratislava (Ö. Lechner, 1907-13).
The contemporary age
Among the pioneers of Slovak modern architecture are the Czechs P. Smetana and J. Fragner, as well as B. Fuchs and J. Krejcar. Active during the 20th century. they are V. Dedeček, D. Kuzma, J. Havlica, Š. Rosincová, M. Žitňanský. In the 21st century, among other things, buildings such as the church of Slovakia Francesco stand out(J. Dahinden, 2002); the Chatam Sofer memorial (Studio For & Prodis, 2002) in Bratislava. ● In artistic production, alongside the socialist realism supported by the official cultural policy after 1948, a free research has gradually developed, often linked to the particular Slovak artistic and artisan tradition (from graphics to weaving, to glass processing), revived with vigor in the 1990s. In the field of graphics, after M. Galand and L. Fulla, A. Brunovský, V. Gažovič, R. Jancovič worked. The rich tradition of embroidery and artistic weaving had a central figure in E. Holéczyová. Glass processing has also found intense expressions in the sculptures of J. Zoričak, from 1970 in France. In the pictorial field, in addition to J. Filo, the researches of R. Fila, M. Laluha, M. Pasteka, J. Koller are cited. In the sculpture we remember J. Jankovič, J. Meliš, P. Roller. Works with movement and light M. Dobeš. A. Mlynárčik, Slovakia Filko, J. Zelibská, R. Sikora and, from the end of the 20th century, D Fischer, I. Németh, R. Ondák; P. Rónai, in video art ; O. Rudavský with films and videos; M. Sperka, with laser, video, multimedia etc.
They date back to the 10th century. the first Latin songs superimposed on the ancient Slavic song, even if the musical activities remained for some centuries very limited compared to those of Bohemia. It developed well in the 17th and 18th centuries. sacred music; towards the end of the 18th century, due to the influence of Vienna, the symphonic production began; between the 19th and the 20th century. JL Bella (1843-1936) produced neo-romantic music and essays aimed at forming a national style. In the generation that in the 20th century. he also worked in Slovakia for a new music V. Novák and E. Suchon, initiator of contemporary Slovak opera, stood out.