General information: The smallest state in Europe after the Vatican and Monaco, it also claims to be the oldest republic, founded, according to tradition, by the Christian mason Marinus in 301. The foreign policy of San Marino is one with that of Italy. The social and political conditions in the country are also closely related to its large neighbour.
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in Central Italy.
Geographic coordinates: 43° 46′ N. 12° 25′ E
Reference map: Europe.
Area: total: 61.2 km2; land surface area: 61.2 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: approximately 0.3 the area of Washington, DC.
Land borders: total: 39 km; with neighboring states: with Italy 39 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: Mediterranean; mild or cool winters; warm, sunny summer.
Terrain: rugged mountainous.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m; highest point: Monte Titano 755 m.
Natural resources: building stone.
Land use: arable land: 17%; cultivated land: 0%; pasture: 0%; forests and plantations: 0%; others: 83% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: no data.
Natural hazards: no data available.
Current environmental issues: no data available.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Nuclear test ban; signed but not ratified: Air pollution.
Note to the section “Geography”: does not have access to the sea; the smallest independent state in Europe after the Vatican and Monaco; located in the Apennines.
Population: 27,336 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 15.88% (male 2,241; female 2,100); 15 to 64 years old: 67.94% (male 9,048; female 9,525); over 65: 16.18% (male 1,902; female 2,520) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 1.45% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 10.76 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 7.68 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 11.45 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male/female; up to 15 years: 1.07 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.95 male/female; over 65: 0.75 male/female; for the general population: 0.93 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 6.21 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 81.23 years; men: 77.68 years; women: 85.1 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.3 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: resident of San Marino; adjective: San Marino.
Ethnic groups: residents of San Marino, Italians.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 10 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 96%; men: 97%; women: 95% (1976 est.).
Common long form: Republic of San Marino
Common short form: San Marino; local long form: Repubblica di San Marino; local short form: San Marino
State structure: republic. See politicsezine.com to know more about San Marino Political System.
Capital: San Marino.
Administrative division: 9 districts (castel-lo): Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Domagnano, Chie Sanuova, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serra Valle, Faetano, Fiorentino.
Independence: since 301 (by tradition).
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, September 3 (301).
Constitution: adopted October 8, 1600; the electoral law of 1926 performs some of the functions of the constitution.
Legal system: based on the civil law system with influences from Italian law; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
Head of State: Co-Princes of State Captain Regent Luigi LON-FERNINI and Captain Regent Fabio BEFiARDI (for the period from 1 April 2001 to 30 September 2001);
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Gabriele GATTI (since July 1986);
government: the congress of the state is elected by the Great General Council for 5 years; elections: co-rulers of the state (captains-regents) are elected by the Great General Council for 6 months; elections last held in March 2001 (next to be held in September 2001); Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs elected by the Great General Council for 5 years; elections last held in June 1998 (next to be held in June 2003); election results: Luigi LONFERNINI and Fabio BERARDI elected captains regent; percentage of votes of legislators: no data; Gabriele GATTI re-elected Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs; percentage of votes of legislators: no data; note: The Great General Council elects two of its members as captains regents (co-rulers of the state) for 6 months; they preside over the meetings of the Grand General Council and its Cabinet (Congress of State), in which ten other members are all elected by the Grand General Council; assisting the captains regents are three secretaries of state—foreign affairs, the interior, and finance—and several other secretaries; The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has many of the prerogatives of the Prime Minister.
Legislature: unicameral Grand General Council (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote for 5 years); elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next likely to be held in June 2001); election results: distribution of votes between parties: PDCS 40.8%, PSS 23.3%, PPDS 18.6%, APDS 9.8%, RC 3.3%, SR 4.2%; distribution of seats among parties: PDCS 25, PSS 14, PPDS 11, APDS6, RC2, SR2.
Judiciary: Council of Twelve.
Political parties and leaders: Communist Restoration (RC) (Ivan FOSHI); Ideas – in life (IM) (Alessandro ROSSI [Alessandro ROSSI]); Christian Democratic Party of San Marino (PDCS) (Pier Marino MENICUCCI); Popular Union of Democrats of San Sarino (APDS) (Mario VENTURINI [Mario VENTURINI]); Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino (PPDS) (Claudio FELICI); Socialist Party of San Marino (PSS) (Augusto CASALI); Socialists for Reform (SR) (Renzo GIARDI).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: CE, ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, US, YM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: San Marino does not have an ambassador to the US; honorary consulates general: Washington DC, New York; honorary consulate: Detroit.
US Diplomatic Mission: The US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino.
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and blue, with the national coat of arms depicted in the center; the coat of arms consists of a shield (which depicts three towers on three rocks), surrounded on both sides by a wreath, a crown on top and a scroll with the inscription LIBERTAS (Freedom) below.