People's Republic of the Congo

People’s Republic of the Congo

GENERALITY

It is located in the northwestern section of the Congolese basin, in the middle of equatorial Africa. Its territory is, so to speak, the result of the colonial expansion pursued by the French along the right bank of the Congo River, while the Belgians secured a much larger dominion on the opposite bank. Hence the conventionality of borders, which have very little geographical and ethnic reason. The Republic of Congo could theoretically enjoy considerable wealth, but in reality it is grappling with the problems of pure and simple survival. Its potential wealth does not derive only from natural resources, but also from the services it can sell to neighboring countries: in the transport sector, in fact, at the beginning of the 2000s, it is fairly well equipped and is experiencing a first hint of development and diversification of the tertiary.

HISTORY: THE BIRTH OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC AND THE CIVIL WAR

A new Constitution, promulgated on January 3, 1970, gave birth (until 1992) to the People’s Republic of Congo, in which the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) of Marxist-Leninist inspiration had absolute pre-eminence. In foreign policy, however, the relations of collaboration with France and Francophone Africa remained unchanged. A dramatic turning point took place in March 1977, when General Ngouabi fell victim to a plot inspired, according to the military junta, by former president Massemba-D├ębat, who was arrested and shot. Colonel Joachim Yhorubi Opango was appointed to succeed Ngouabi who, failing to control the difficult situation in the country, returned power to the Central Committee of the Congolese Party (February 1979). From the elections of March of the same year Denis Sassou-Nguesso was elected president, who issued a new “socialist” Constitution, approved in July 1979. Sassou-Nguesso was re-elected in 1984 and 1989. According to remzfamily, the second half of the Eighties, in a climate of increased economic difficulties, saw a stronger opposition to the government, expressed by even violent demonstrations. In 1989 the first elections took place with candidates from outside the ruling party (but only minimally) and in September 1990, finally, under the pressure of the Church and the single union, Sassou-Nguesso agreed to establish a multi-party system, launched at the same time. the renunciation of Marxism-Leninism by the PCT, which adopted a social democratic program. The next step towards the Republic was the meeting, in February 1991, of a National Conference, which in June of the same year, removing many of his prerogatives from President Sassou-Nguesso, elected a provisional government chaired by the independent A. Milongo; at the same time a Superior Council of the Republic was established, a legislative body with the task of managing the difficult transition to democracy. In 1992, in a climate of great social and political instability, the first free presidential elections were held, won by P. Lissouba, leader of the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADES). When the Assembly was dissolved (November 1992), in which his party was a minority, Lissouba called new political elections held between May and June 1993, this time in favor of the president which, however, were harshly contested by the opposition who accused UPADES of fraud. Violent clashes ensued, with several hundred victims. In January 1994, an agreement was signed between Lissouba and the opposition deputies and an armed interposition force was established, but in 1997 the clash between Lissouba and his predecessor Sassou-Nguesso broke out again, and the Republic of Congo fell into a devastating civil war and the intervention of France and neighboring countries was of no use. In the’ October of the same year, after having dismissed Lissouba (thanks also to the intervention of the Angolan army), Sassou-Nguesso (former president from 1979 to 1992) proclaimed himself head of state, suspended the Constitution and formed a government of national unity: the The country plunged back into anarchy and violence, and all the parties in the conflict (regular forces, militias and armed opposition groups) committed widespread abuses and killings. The two ceasefires signed during the same year between the Ninja, supporters of the former president Lissouba and government representatives were reneged by the the country plunged back into anarchy and violence and all the parties in the conflict (regular forces, militias and armed opposition groups) committed widespread abuses and killings. The two ceasefires signed during the same year between the Ninja, supporters of the former president Lissouba and government representatives were reneged by the the country plunged back into anarchy and violence and all the parties in the conflict (regular forces, militias and armed opposition groups) committed widespread abuses and killings. The two ceasefires signed during the same year between the Ninja, supporters of the former president Lissouba and government representatives were reneged by the opposition leader in exile. Over the following years, the climate of indiscriminate violence on both sides, including against unarmed civilians, caused a massive exodus of the population to neighboring countries, especially in Gabon. Sassou-Nguesso was reconfirmed in the 2002 and 2009 presidential elections; his party asserted itself with an absolute majority in the 2007 legislative elections.

People's Republic of the Congo