People's Republic of Outer Mongolia

People’s Republic of Outer Mongolia

According to Localcollegeexplorer, the People’s Republic of Outer Mongolia, whose independence was definitively sanctioned by the Sino-Soviet Treaty of February 14, 1950, has, according to an estimate of January 1958, a population of 1,000,000 residents (dens. 0.6), including nuclei of recently immigrated Russians, and is administratively divided into a municipality (Sukhe Bator *) and 17 provinces (aimak). In October 1961 she was admitted to the United Nations.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, which placed outer Mongolia at the center of the complex system of Sino-Soviet balances and influences and with the construction of the Trans-Mongolian railway, which made it a bridge between the two countries, Soviet influence on the Mongolian People’s Republic, always large, is no longer exclusive. If the United States gave the RPM from 1946 to 1957 on the basis of various agreements with economic aid for a total of 276 million dollars, China entered into a treaty of friendship and mutual assistance and economic agreement in May 1959, with which it undertakes to contribute to the economic development of the country with two hundred million rubles. On 28 Jan. 1952 Marshal Choibalsan died in a Moscow clinic: he was succeeded as prime minister by Yumzhagin Tsedenbal.

The government, elected by universal suffrage, but made up of members of the only existing Communist party (Popular Revolutionary Party), through the implementation of five-year plans, started in 1948, has favored industrial development, the construction of new communication routes, agriculture and in particular with the selection of breeds, the cultivation of fodder and a more rational use of pastures, the breeding of livestock. An attempt was also made, especially with the second plan (1953-57), to gather nomads into collective farms; the third three-year plan (1958-60) aims to cultivate 257,000 hectares. In reality intolerant to schemes unrelated to them, the Mongols are still more shepherds than farmers and even if with a fixed residence, cultivated just enough grain for their needs, they continue to move with the flocks. As a result, state-owned collective farms have mostly taken on the character of experimental stations and agriculture, which has been extended over 7 million irrigated hectares and whose production has increased fairly (wheat is sufficient for local consumption), has remained a ” marginal activity towards livestock breeding whose assets, calculated in 1984 as 2,300,000 horses, 14,200,000 sheep, 5,300,000 goats, 900,000 camels, is 90% private property and only 10% belongs to the state or to cooperatives (the 1956-60 plan provides for the production of 12,000,000 tons of meat). Private land ownership is always practically non-existent and the determination of the lands where everyone will lead the flocks to pasture continues to be entrusted to tradition and common sense. Overall, the standard of living has improved somewhat: new villages have sprung up and medical, veterinary and postal stations have been created in places easily accessible by nomads for which an air service is also in operation in case of urgent rescue. In the industrial sector, in addition to the first complex, built in Ulan Bator (the only city in rapid growth) following the Soviet system of the so-called “kombinat”, plants for wool washing and processing have been created in the various centers of the country. of livestock products. In Altan Bulak and apparently also in Nalaika, Bain Bulak, Undur Khan, Yugodsyr and Dzun Bulak, the exploitation of hard coal deposits has begun (300,000 t in 1954, which, according to the 1958-60 plan, should reach 790,000 t per year); tungsten and uranium are exported to Russia and oil is extracted from Sain Šanda. These extractive industries, which were previously in the hands of some foreign companies, are now managed by the state like foreign trade which takes place mainly with the Soviet Union and to a lesser extent with China, through the recent railway network. The railway that connects the Trans-Siberian to Ulan Bator was built, headed by Ulan Ude, and in 1955 the line that connects the capital with Tsining was inaugurated, running parallel, up to the border with China, to the ancient road that reaches Kalgan. Minor railway sections also radiate from Choibalsan to Uldza, Erentsab, Dzun Bulak and Tamtsag Bulak. Ulan Bator has been linked by highways to the main centers of the republic such as Choibalsan, Džibkhalantu, Muren, Undur Khan and is connected by regular airlines with Moscow, Beijing and Ulan Ude. Numerous other airports have been built in recent years, including the first one in terms of grandeur of equipment that of Sain Šanda. In the cultural field, where as in other sectors of Mongolian life the Russian influence is very strong, an attempt has been made to eliminate illiteracy by making compulsory education consisting of a seven-year course in the cities and elementary classes in rural areas. Replaced in 1946 the Mongolian alphabet with a new one based on the Russian one, the higher education remains entrusted to the university, which accommodates 1,500 students, and seventy teachers, half of whom are Russian. Cultural relations were also established with China, after an agreement for ten years, signed in Beijing in October 1952, and an Academy of Sciences was founded in 1953.

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia was reorganized by the Chinese Communists as early as 1947, into an “autonomous region” of the People’s Republic of China. The autonomous statute was reconfirmed for Mongolia with the 1954 Constitution and institutionalized for other cases. Since 1949 the Mongolian region has undergone several territorial and border changes. In the 1959 structure it extended for 1,177,500 km with a population of 7,500,000 residents. In recent years it has had a notable agricultural development, with the cultivation of new lands, and industrial, with the creation of the industrial center of Paotou.

People's Republic of Outer Mongolia