Background: Despite its neutrality, Norway could not avoid being occupied by Germany during World War II. In 1949, neutrality was abolished and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of offshore oil and natural gas fields in the late 1960s spurred the development of the economy. The main tasks for Norway today are to expand the social security system and prepare in advance for the time when oil reserves are exhausted. in the referendums of 1972 and 1994. Norwegians refused to join the EU.
Location: Northern Europe, coast of the North Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Norway Geography.
Geographic coordinates: 62° 00′ N. latitude, 10° 00′ E
Reference map: Europe.
Area: total: 324,220 km2; land surface area: 307,860 km2; water surface area: 16,360 km2
Comparative area: slightly larger than the state of New Mexico.
Land borders: total length: 2,515 km; with neighboring states: with Finland 729 km, with Sweden 1,619 km, with Russia 167 km.
Coastline: 21,925 km (includes 3,419 km of mainland coast, 2,413 km of large islands and 16,093 km of fjords, numerous small islands and coastal bends).
Maritime claims: neutral waters: 10 nautical miles; continental shelf: 200 nautical miles; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 4 nautical miles.
Climate: temperate along the coast, influenced by the North Atlantic Current; cooler inland; year-round rainfall on the west coast.
Relief: with traces of glaciers; mostly high plateaus and precipitous mountains interspersed with fertile valleys; small scattered valleys; the coastline is indented by deep fjords; arctic tundra in the north.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m; highest point: Mount Galdhøpiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources: oil, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower.
Land use: arable land: 3%; cultivated land: 0%; pasture: 0%; forests and plantations: 27%; others: 70% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 970 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: landslides, snow avalanches.
Actual environmental problems: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests, affecting lakes to varying degrees and threatening the survival of fish; exhaust air pollution.
International agreements on environmental protection: contributor: Air Pollution, Air Pollution – Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution – Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution – Sulfur 1985, Air Pollution – Sulfur 1994, Air Pollution – Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctica – Environmental Protection Protocol, Conservation of Marine Life in Antarctica, Antarctic seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Environmental change, Hazardous waste, Law of the sea, Marine pollution, Nuclear test ban, Ozone layer protection, Ship pollution, Tropical timber 1983, Tropical timber 1994, Wetlands, Whaling; signed but not ratified: Kyoto Protocol.
Note to the section “Geography”: about two-thirds of the country is mountainous; there are about 50,000 islands along the heavily indented coastline; strategically important location near the sea and air routes of the North Atlantic; the coast is one of the most winding and steep in the world; Norway is the only NATO member with a land border with Russia.
Population: 4,503,440 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 19.99% (male 462,693; female 437,514); 15 to 64 years old: 64.91% (male 1,482,346; female 1,440,832); over 65: 15.1% (male 282,307; female 397,768) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 0.49% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 12.6 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 9.83 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 2.11 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male/female; under 15: 1.06 male/female; from 15 to 64 years old: 1.03 male/female; over 65: 0.71 male/female; for the general population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.).
Child mortality: 3.94 deaths/1000 newborns (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 78.79 years; men: 75.87 years; women: 81.92 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.81 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: 1,600 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 8 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Norwegian; adjective: Norwegian.
Ethnic groups: Norwegians (Scandinavian, Alpine, Baltic), Sami 20,000.
Believers: Lutherans 86% (Lutheranism is the state religion), other Protestants and Catholics 3%, other 1%, non-denominational or unknown 10% (1997).
Language(s): Norwegian (official). note: there are small communities that speak Sami and Finnish.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 100%; men: no data; women: no data.
Common long form: Kingdom of Norway;
conventional short form: Norway; local long form: Kongeriket Norge; local short form: Norge.
State structure: Constitutional monarchy.
Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fyl-ke), Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland.
Dependent territories: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen Island, Svalbard.
Independence: June 7, 1905 Norway announced the break of the alliance with Sweden; On October 26, 1905, Sweden agreed to the dissolution of the union.
National holiday: Constitution Day, May 17 (since 1814).
Constitution: adopted May 17, 1814, amended 1884
Legal system: combination of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; The Supreme Court issues advisory opinions at the request of the legislature; subject to the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: King HARALD V (HA-RALD V) (since 17 January 1991); heir to the throne, Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973);
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 March 2000);
Government: a state council appointed by the monarch and approved by the Storting; elections: no; hereditary monarchy; after parliamentary elections, the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the candidacy of the prime minister is approved by the Storting.
Legislature: modified. a unicameral parliament, or Storting, which in some cases is divided into two chambers (165 members elected by popular vote on the principle of proportional representation for a four-year term); elections: last held 15 September 1997 (next to be held 10 September 2001); election results: distribution of votes by party – Labor Party 35%, Center Party 7.9%, Conservative Party 14.3%, Christian People’s Party 13.7%, Socialist Left Party 6%, Progress Party 15.3%, Liberal Party 4.4%, other parties 1.6%; seat distribution by party – Labor Party 65, Center Party 11, Conservative Party 23, Christian People’s Party 25, Socialist Left Party 9, Progress Party 25, Liberal Party 6, other parties 1; note:
Judiciary: Supreme Court (Hoyesterett); judges are appointed by the monarch.
Political parties and leaders: Center Party (Odd Roger ENOKSEN); Christian People’s Party (Kiel Magne BONDEVIK [Kiell Magne BONDEVIK]); Conservative Party (Jan PETERSEN); Workers’ Party (Jene STOLTENBERG); Liberal Party (Lars SPONHEIM); Progress Party (Carl I. HAGEN); Socialist Left Party (Kristin HALVORSEN).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC , IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat Interpol, IOC, YuM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: head of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBEK (Knut VOL-LEBAEK); office: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; phone:  (202) 333-6000; fax: [\) (202) 337-0870; consulates general: Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Robin Chandler DUKE; embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo; mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707; phone:  (22) 44 85 50; fax:  (22) 43 07 77.
Description of the flag: red with a blue cross bordered in white and resting on the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is somewhat offset to the pole, as on the Danish flag.