Background: In 1999, after nearly 16 years of military rule, Nigeria adopted a new constitution and completed its peaceful transition to civilian rule. The new president faces the serious task of rebuilding an inefficient and corrupt economy based on oil production, as well as the task of creating a legislative framework for the development of democracy. In addition, President OBASANJO’s government should help end long-standing ethnic and religious strife in order to accelerate economic growth and stabilize the political situation in the country.
Location: West Africa, coast of the Gulf of Guinea between Benin and Cameroon. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Nigeria Geography.
Geographical coordinates: 10° 00′ N. latitude, 8° 00′ E
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 923,768 km2; land surface area: 910,768 km2; water surface area: 13,000 km2
Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of the state of California.
Land borders: total length: 4,047 km; with neighboring states: with Benin 773 km, with Cameroon 1,690 km, with Chad 87 km, with Niger 1,497 km.
Coastline: 853 km.
Maritime claims: continental shelf: to a depth of 200 m or to the depth of exploitation; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: varies by area; equatorial in the south, tropical in the central regions, arid in the north.
Relief: southern lowlands, turning into central hills and plateaus; mountains in the southeast, plains in the north.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m; highest point: Mount Chappal Waddy 2,419 m.
Natural resources: natural gas, oil, tin, tantalum ore, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land.
Land use: arable land: 33%; cultivated land: 3%; pastures: 44%; forests and plantations: 12%; other: 8% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 9,570 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: Periodic droughts.
Current environmental issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; desertification.
International environmental treaties: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Pollution, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”:
Population: 126,635,626; note: estimates for this country take into account rising AIDS deaths; due to the spread of AIDS, life expectancy, population size and population growth may actually be lower, and child mortality and overall mortality rates correspondingly higher; there may also be changes in age structure and sex ratios (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 43.71% (male 27,842,020; female 27,514,197); 15 to 64 years old: 53.47% (male 34,456,738; female 33,259,194); over 65: 2.82% (male 1,780,862; female 1,782,410) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2.61% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 39.69 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 13.91 deaths/1000 people (2001 est.).
Migration: 0.28 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; under 15: 1.01 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.04 male/female; over 65: 1 male/female; for the general population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 73.34 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 51.07 years; men: 51.07 years; women: 51.07 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 5.57 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 5.06% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 2.7 million (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 250,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Nigerian; adjective: Nigerian.
Ethnic groups: The population of Nigeria – the largest among the countries of Africa – consists of more than 250 ethnic groups; The largest and most politically influential of these are: Hausa and Fulbe 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijo 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%.
Believers: Muslims 50%, Christians 40%, adherents of local beliefs 10%.
Language(s): English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulbe.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 57.1%; men: 67.3%; women: 47.3% (1995 est.).
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria;
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government: A republic in the process of transitioning from military dictatorship to civilian rule.
Capital: Abuja; note: On December 12, 1991, the capital of Nigeria was officially moved from Lagos to Abuja; many government offices are now being relocated to Abuja.
Administrative division: 36 states and 1 territory: Abia, Adamawa, Aqua Ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Gombe, Dwigawa, Delta, Zamfara, Ido, Imo, Yobe, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kwara, Kebbi, Kogi, Cross River, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Abuja Federal Capital Territory*, Ebonia, Ekiti, Enugu.
Independence: October 1, 1960 (until 1960 – a British colony).
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (since 1960).
Constitution: New constitution adopted in 1999
Legal system: Based on English common law, Islamic law and tribal customs.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
head of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since May 29, 1999); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999) note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
Government: Federal Executive Council; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term and can only be re-elected once; elections last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held in 2003); election results: Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) elected president; percentage of votes – Olusegun OBASANJO 62.8%, Olu FALAE (APP-AD) 37.2%.
Legislature: bicameral National Assembly, consisting of the Senate (109 members, three from each of the 36 states and 1 from the Federal Capital Territory; members are elected by popular vote for a four-year term) and the House of Representatives (360 members, elected by popular vote for a four-year term); elections: for Senate last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held in 2003); to the House of Representatives – last passed February 20-24, 1999 (next to be held in 2003); election results: Senate – distribution of votes by parties – PDP 58%, APP 23%, AD 19%; distribution of seats by party – PDP 67, APP 23, AD 19; to the House of Representatives – distribution of votes by parties PDP 58%, APP 30%, AD 12%; distribution of seats by party – PDP221, APP 70, AD 69.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, judges appointed by the Provisional Government Council; Federal Court of Appeal, judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Judicial Advisory Committee.
Political parties and leaders: All People’s Party (APP) (Alhaji Yusuf ALI [Alhaji Yusuf ALI]); Alliance for Democracy (AD) (struggle for leadership between Yusuf MAMMAN and Alhasi Adamu ABDULKADIR); People’s Democratic Party (PDP) (Barnabas GEMADE [Barnabas 6EMADE]).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AGOV, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24.G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Jibril AMINU; office: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; phone:  (202) 986-8400; fax:  (202) 775-1385; consulates general: Atlanta and New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Howard Franklin JETER; embassy: 8 Mambilla Drive, Abuja; mailing address: R. O. Box 554, Lagos; phone:  (1) 261-0050, 261-0078; fax:  (1) 261-0257.
Description of the flag: three equal vertical stripes of green (hoist side), white and green.