General information: Mozambique was a Portuguese colony for almost five centuries and achieved independence in 1975. Mass emigration of whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought and a protracted civil war have long held back the development of the country. In 1989, the ruling party formally abandoned Marxism, and a new constitution was adopted the following year, providing for multi-party elections and a free market economy. A UN-brokered peace agreement with rebel forces ended the conflict in 1992.
Location: South Africa, on the coast of the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Mozambique Geography.
Geographic coordinates: 18° 15′ S. latitude, 35° 00′ E
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 801,590 km2; land surface area: 784,090 km2; water surface area: 17,500 km2
Comparative area: slightly less than double the area of California.
Land borders: total length: 4,571 km; with neighboring states: with Malawi 15 69 km, with South Africa 491 km, with Swaziland 105 km, with Tanzania 756 km, with Zambia 419 km, with Zimbabwe 1 231 km.
Coastline: 2,470 km.
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical to subtropical.
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, upland in central regions, high plateau in northwest, mountains in west.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m; highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m.
Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite.
Land use: arable land: 4%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 56%; forests and plantations: 18%; others: 22% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 1,200 km2 (2000 est.).
Natural Hazards: severe droughts and floods occurring in the central and southern provinces; devastating cyclones.
Current environmental issues: protracted civil war and recurrent droughts leading to mass migration to urban and coastal areas and adverse environmental impacts; desertification; pollution of coastal and surface waters.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Law of the sea, Protection of the ozone layer; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”:
Population: 19,371,057; note: estimates for this country take into account rising AIDS deaths; due to the spread of AIDS, life expectancy, population size and population growth may actually be lower, and child mortality and overall mortality rates correspondingly higher; changes in age structure and sex ratio may also occur; according to the census conducted in 1997 by the Mozambican government, the population was 16,099,246 people. (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 42.72% (male 4,124,093; female 4,152,135); 15 to 64 years old: 54.53% (male 5,222,477; female 5,339,615); over 65: 2.75% (male 221,678; female 311,059) (2001 est.)
Population growth: 1.3% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 37.2 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 24.21 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 0 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; under 15: 0.99 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.98 male/female; over 65: 0.71 male/female; for the general population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 139.2 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 36.45 years; men: 37.25 years; women: 35.62 years (2001 est.).
Total fertility rate: 4.82 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: 13.22% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 1.2 million (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 98,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Mozambican; adjective: Mozambican.
Ethnic groups: local tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manika, Sena, Ma-Kua and others), Europeans 0.06%, descendants of Europeans and Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%.
Believers: Indigenous 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%.
Language(s): Portuguese (official), local dialects.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 42.3%; men: 58.4%; women: 27% (1998 est.). State Name:
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique;
conventional short form: Mozambique; local long form: Republica de Mocambi-que; local short form: Mocambique.
State structure: republic.
Administrative division: 10 provinces: Gaza, Zambezia, Inhambae, Cabo Delgado, Manika, Maputo, Nampula, Nyasa, Sofala, Tete.
Independence: from June 25, 1975 (until 1975 – a colony of Portugal).
National holiday: Independence Day, June 25 (since 1975).
Constitution: adopted November 30, 1990
Legal system: based on the Portuguese civil law system and customary law.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986) note – On November 4, 1986, the Central Committee of FRELIMO elected CHISSANO as president; On July 30, 1989, the Committee re-elected CHISSANO;
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (December 1994);
Government: cabinet of ministers; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held in 2004); the prime minister is appointed by the president; election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO re-elected president; percentage of votes – Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DLAKAMA (Afonso DHLAKAMA) 47.71%.
Legislature: unicameral Assembly of the Republic (250 members elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term); elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held in 2004); election results: distribution of votes by parties – FRELIMO 48.54%, RENAMO-UE 38.81%; distribution of seats by parties – FRELIMO 133, RENAMO-UE 117; note: Renamo-UE participated in the elections as a multi-party coalition; no other opposition party won the 5% of the vote needed to win parliamentary seats.
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (the highest court; some of its judges are appointed by the president, others are elected by the Assembly); among other courts: Administrative Court, Customs Courts, Maritime Courts, Marshal’s Courts, Labor Courts; note: although the constitution provides for the establishment of an independent Constitutional Court, one has not yet been created, in its absence, the Supreme Court performs its duties.
Political parties and leaders: Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO) (Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, Chairman); Mozambican National Resistance – Electoral Union (RENAMO-UE) (Afonso DLACAMA, president).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: head of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA; office: Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; phone:  (202) 293-7146; fax: [\] (202) 835-0245.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON; embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo; mailing address: R. O. Box 783, Maputo; phone:  (1) 492797; fax:  (1) 490114.
Flag Description: three equal horizontal stripes of green (top), black and yellow with a red isosceles triangle, the base of which is at the pole; black stripe edged in white; in the center of the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star carrying a crossed black rifle and hoe lying on an open white book.