General information: Economic development accelerated at the end of the 19th century. thanks to the construction of a railway that connected the country with France, and the opening of a casino. Since then, the Principality’s mild climate, magnificent scenery and gambling have turned Monaco into a world-famous center for tourism and recreation.
Location: Western Europe, Mediterranean coast, on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Monaco Geography.
Geographical coordinates: 43° 44′ N. sh., 7° 24′ in.
Reference map: Europe.
Area: total: 1.95 sq. km; land surface area: 1.95 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: about three times the size of the Mall Park in Washington, DC.
Land borders: total: 4.4 km; with neighboring states: with France 4.4 km.
Coastline: 4.1 km.
Maritime claims: territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.
Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m; highest point: Mont-Agel 140 m.
Natural resources: none.
Land use: arable land: 0%; cultivated land: 0%; pasture: 0%; forests and plantations: 0%; others: 100% (urban area).
Irrigated land: no data.
Natural hazards: no data available.
Current environmental issues: no data available.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling; signed but not ratified: Kyoto Protocol.
Note to the section “Geography”: the smallest independent state in the world after the Vatican; almost completely built-up area.
Population: 31,842 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 15.32% (men 2503; women 2375); 15 to 64 years old: 62.23% (male 9,731; female 10,083); over 65: 22.45% (male 2,921; female 4,229) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 0.46% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 9.74 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 13 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 7.85 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.05 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.97 male/female; over 65: 0.69 male/female; for the general population: 0.91 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 5.83 deaths/1000 newborns (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 78.98 years; men: 75.04 years; women: 83.12 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.76 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: Monegasque; adjective: Monegasque.
Ethnic groups: French 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%.
Believers: Catholics 90%.
Language(s): French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque.
Literacy: definition: no data; for the general population: 99%; men: no data; women: no data.
Common long form: Principality of Monaco;
conventional short form: Monaco; local long form: Principaute de Monaco local short form: Monaco
State structure: constitutional monarchy.
Administrative division: no; there are no first-order administrative divisions corresponding to the definition adopted by the US government, but there are four quarters: Fontville, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte Carlo.
Independence: 1419 (beginning of the Grimaldi dynasty).
National holiday: National Day, 19 November.
Constitution: adopted December 17, 1962
Legal system: based on French law; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 21 years old; universal.
chief of state: Prince RAINIER III (from 9 May 1949); Crown Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre, son of the monarch (born 14 March 1958);
head of government: Minister of State Patrick LECLERQUE (since 5 January 2000);
Government: government council headed by the monarch; elections: no; hereditary monarchy; the minister of state is appointed by the monarch from among three French candidates proposed by the French government.
Legislature: unicameral National Council (18 seats; members elected by popular vote for 5-year terms); elections: last held 1 and 8 February 1998 (next to be held January 2003); election results: distribution of votes between parties: no data; distribution of seats among parties: UND 18.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the National Council.
Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Union (UND) (leader – NA); National Union for the Future of Monaco (UNAM) (leader – NA); Association in support of the Monegasque family (leader – no data).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACCT, ECE, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Monaco does not have an embassy in the USA; Consulate General: New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: The US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France) is accredited to Monaco.
Description of the flag: two equal horizontal stripes of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia, which is longer, and the flag of Poland, which has a white stripe at the top and a red stripe at the bottom.