Background: The English Protectorate of Nyasaland, established in 1891, became the independent Republic of Malawi in 1964. In 1994, after three decades of one-party rule, the country’s first multi-party elections were held under an interim constitution that came into full force on next year. National multi-party elections were again held in 1999.
Location: South Africa, east of Zambia. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Malawi Geography.
Geographic coordinates: 13° 30’S latitude, 34° 00′ E
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 118,480 km2; land surface area: 94,080 km2; water surface area: 24,400 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of Pennsylvania.
Land borders: total length: 2,881 km; with neighboring states: with Mozambique 1,569 km, with Tanzania 475 km, with Zambia 837 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: subtropical; rainy season from November to May; dry season from May to November.
Relief: narrow elongated hilly plateau, there are mountains.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: crossing the border with Mozambique by the Shire River 37 m; highest point: Mount Sapitva 3,002 m.
Natural resources: limestone, arable land, hydroelectric resources, unexploited uranium deposits, coal and bauxite.
Land use: arable land: 34%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 20%; forests and plantations: 39%; others: 7% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 280 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: no data available.
Current environmental issues: deforestation; soil degradation; water pollution by agricultural runoff, sewage and industrial waste; siltation of spawning waters, threatening the survival of fish populations.
International environmental agreements: member: Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Environmental change, Hazardous waste, Marine life conservation, Nuclear test ban, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea.
Note to the section “Geography”: has no access to the sea. :
Population: 10,548,250; note: estimates for this country take into account rising AIDS deaths; due to the spread of AIDS, life expectancy, population size and population growth may actually be lower, and child mortality and overall mortality rates correspondingly higher; there may also be changes in age structure and sex ratios (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 44.43% (male 2,348,940; female 2,337,290); 15 to 64 years old: 52.78% (male 2,741,622; female 2,825,966); over 65: 2.79% (male 119,283; female 175,149) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 1.5% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 37.8 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 22.81 deaths/1000 people (2001 est.)
Migration: 0 pers. /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; up to 15 years: 1 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.97 male/female; over 65: 0.68 male/female; for the general population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 121.12 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 37.08 years; men: 36.61 years; women: 37.55 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 5.18 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: 15.96% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 800,000 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 70,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Malawian; adjective: Malawian.
Ethnic groups: Chua, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Asians, Europeans.
Believers: Protestants 55%, Catholics 20%, Muslims 20%, adherents of local beliefs.
Language(s): English (official), Chichua (official), other languages of regional importance.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 58%; men: 72.8%; women: 43.4% (1999 est.).
conventional long form: Republic of Malawi;
conventional short form: Malawi; former: Nyasapend.
State structure: multi-party democracy.
Administrative divisions: 24 districts: Blanc-tyre, Dedza, Dowa, Zomba, Karonga, Kasungu, Li-pongwe, Mangochi, Machinga (Kasupe), Mwanza, Mzimba, Mulanye, Mchinyi, Nkata Bay, Nkota Kota, Nsanye, Nchisi, Nchou, Rumfi, Salima, Tio-lo, Chikuaua, Chiradzulu, Chitipa; note: there may be three new districts named Balaka, Likoma and Fa-lombe.
Independence: from July 6, 1964 (former British protectorate).
National holiday: Independence Day, July 6 (since 1964).
Constitution: adopted May 18, 1994
Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since May 21, 1994) \ note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of the government: President Bakili MULOUZU (since May 21, 1994); note – the president is both head of state and head of government; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held in 2004); election results: Bakili MULOUZU re-elected president; percent of the vote – Bakili MULOUZU (UDF) 51.4%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3%.
legislature: National Assembly (193 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term); elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held in 2004); election results: distribution of votes by parties – UDF 48%, MSR 34%, AFORD 15%, other parties 3%; distribution of seats by party – UDF 94, MSR 66, AFORD 29, others 4.
Judiciary: Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chairman appointed by the president, judges appointed on the recommendation of the Judicial Commission); local courts.
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy (AFORD) (Chakufwa CHIHANA, President); Malawi Congress Party (MCP) (Gwanda CHAKUAMBA, President); Democratic Party of Malawi (MDP) (Kampelo KALUA [Kampelo KASHA], president); National Independence Party (leader – no data); Social Democratic Party (SDP) (Eston KAKHOME, president); United Democratic Front (UDF) (Bakili MULOUZU) is the ruling party.
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IF.C, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO; office: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone:  (202) 797-1007.”
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Roger A. MEECE; Embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road; mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi Tel:  773 166 Fax:  770 471
Flag Description: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red and green with a red rising sun centered on the black band.