Lanzarote [lanθa red], the easternmost and lowest (up to 670 m above sea level) of the Canary Islands, 846 km 2, 116 800 residents. The neighboring island of La Graciosa (27 km 2) and two rocky islands belong to Lanzarote. The main town isArrecife with international airport. Lanzarote is of volcanic origin (basalt); Several rows of (around 300) volcanic cones sit on the shield-shaped land. Since the main eruptions of 1730–36 and 1824 (Timanfaya; since 1974 national park, 5 107 ha), more than 20% of the island has been covered by a black lava and ash layer (»Malpaís«; formerly fertile); A 3–5 km wide strip of dunes stretches across the island.
The climate is arid (200–300 mm annual precipitation); because of the lack of water, drinking water is obtained by desalination of sea water. The poor vegetation consists of tamarisks, euphorbias, opuntias, lichens and isolated Canary Islands. The most important branch of business is bathing tourism (especially Germans) in the centers on the east and south coast; also fishing and processing as well as sea salt extraction. In dry farming, wine (Malvasia), melons, figs, tomatoes, onions, etc. generated.
History: Lanzarote (originally Tite-Roy-Gatra), named after the Genoese Lancelotto Malocello, who is said to have built here in 1312, was a kingdom of the Guanches in the 14th century, was conquered for Castile in 1402-04 and remained a feudal Señorío until 1812. Through piracy and enslavement, the population sank to 600 in 1587; In 1787 it was 12,700. Since the mid-1950s, tourism has expanded.
Graciosa, [gra.theta ɔ sa], La Graciosa,,, one of the Canary Islands Spain Lanzarote in front in the north, 27 km 2.
Melilla [me li ʎ a], Arabic Mliya, Berber Tamlit, harbor town on a peninsula on the North African Mediterranean coast of Morocco, Spanish enclave, 13 km 2, (2020) 87,100 residents; Currency: Euro.
Trading center, ore loading port, fishing and fish processing, shipbuilding; Garrison; Free port, ferry service to Málaga and Almería, airport.
The picturesque old town (“Medina Sidonia”) with houses in the Andalusian architectural style is surrounded by a wall from the 6th century; in the north corner there is a fortress (16th century, still used as such today) with a municipal museum (Punic-Roman ceramics). To protect against illegal immigration, the city was surrounded by border fences.
According to GETZIPCODES, Melilla was re-founded above the Phoenician Rusadir (destroyed in 705) in the 10th century by the Caliph of Córdoba and flourished under the Merinids in the 13th century (port for Fès and Taza). Melilla has been under Spanish ownership since 1497 and has had autonomous status since 1995.
Ceuta [ θε ta, Spanish], Arabic Sebta, North African port city on the Moroccan coast of the Strait of Gibraltar, 19 km 2, (2020) 84,200 residents, divided equally Christians and Muslims.
Ceuta is under Spanish sovereignty; The official language is Spanish, the official currency is the euro. Ceuta lies on a peninsula and is divided into the Moorish old town (Medina), the European new town, the barracks district and the protected harbor (ferry boats to Algeciras, Spain); major day tourism of Spain (purchase of duty-free goods), canned fish production. Since 1993, Ceuta has been surrounded by border fences to protect against illegal immigration.
In the medina is the former Portuguese fortress Candelero (1530); the church of Nuestra Señora de África (1704–26; church treasury); the cathedral (1729) and the town hall (1929). In the east rises the 204 m high Monte Hacho (one of the columns of Heracles) with the fortress Castillo del Desnarigado (military museum); in the west tower-reinforced remains of an old Arab port.
Ceuta was successively owned by the Vandals, Byzantines and Visigoths. Under Arab rule 711-1415 (especially in the 14th century), Ceuta was the most important city in Morocco as an Arab-Berber base after Spain. In 1415 it was conquered by the Portuguese; with Portugal it came to Spain in 1580. Until 1995, Ceuta was administratively part of the Spanish province of Cadiz; since March 14, 1995 it has had autonomy status.
Canary Islands (Canaries), Spanish archipelago of volcanic origin off the north-west African coast, 7 447 km 2 with 2.2 million residents.
The Canary Islands include six smaller and seven larger islands, especially La Palma, Hierro, Gomera, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. The climate is oceanic-subtropical. In addition to the lively tourism, the export of bananas, tomatoes and new potatoes is of economic importance.