General information: The international recognition of independence in 1991 (before 1991 – as part of Yugoslavia) of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was challenged by Greece, which objected to the use by the new state of Greek, as it believed, names and symbols. In 1995, Greece eventually lifted the Macedonian trade blockade and the countries agreed to normalize relations, although the dispute over the use of the name “Macedonia” continues. The sizable Albanian minority living in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the de facto independent neighboring province of Kosovo continue to be sources of inter-ethnic conflict.
Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece. See franciscogardening.com to know more about Northern Macedonia Geography.
Geographic coordinates: 41° 50′ N. latitude, 22° 00′ E
Reference map: Europe.
Area: total: 25,333 km2; land surface area: 24,856 km2; water surface area: 477 km2
Comparative area: slightly larger than the state of Vermont.
Land borders: total: 748 km; with neighboring states: with Albania 151 km, with Bulgaria 148 km, with Greece 228 km, with Yugoslavia 221 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: summer and autumn are warm and dry, winter is relatively cold with heavy snowfalls.
Relief: mountainous terrain with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes separated by state borders; The country is divided in half by the Vardar River.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Vardar river 50 m; highest point: Mount Korab (Maja e Koga-bit) 2,753 m.
Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, poor iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land.
Land use: arable land: 24%; cultivated land: 2%; pastures: 25%; forests and plantations: 39%; others: 10% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 830 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: high risk of earthquakes.
Current environmental issues: air pollution from metallurgical enterprises.
International environmental agreements: member: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Climate change, Endangered species, Hazardous waste, Law of the sea, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”: landlocked; the main transport corridor from Western and Central Europe to the Aegean and from Southern Europe to Western Europe.
Population: 2,046,209 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 22.92% (men 243,715; women 225,349); 15 to 64 years: 66.94% (male 688,484; female 681,225); over 65: 10.14% (male 92,043; female 115,393) (2001 est.);
Population growth: 0.43% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 13.5 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 7.7 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -1.54 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male/female; under 15: 1.08 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.01 male/female; over 65: 0.8 male/female; for the general population: 1 male/female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 12.95 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 74.02 years; men: 71.79 years; women: 76.43 years (2001 est.).
Total fertility rate: 1.79 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: less than 0.01% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 100 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Macedonian; adjective: Macedonian.
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turk 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994).
Believers: Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%.
Languages): Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%.
Literacy: definition: no data; for the general population: no data available; men: no data; women: no data. State Name:
conventional long form: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia;
Common short form: does not exist; local long form: Republika Makedonija; local short form: Makedonija; abbreviation: FYROM.
State structure: a nascent democracy.
Administrative division: Miravtsi, Grave, Mur-tino, Negotino, Novatsi, Novo-Selo, Oblesevo, Orashats, Orizari, Oslomey, Ohrid, Letrovets, Pehchevo, Plashnya, Podaresh, Prilep, Probishtip, Radovish, Rakovtse, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusha, Samokov, Shed, Sveti Nikole, Sopishte, Sopot-nitsa, Srbinovo, Star-Doyran, Staro-Nagorichina, Stravina, Struga, Strumica, Studenichani, Suto-Orizari (Skopje), Teartse, Tetovo, Topolcea-ni, Tsentar-Zupa, Center (Skopje), Chapari, Cup, Chegrane, Chesinovo, Shipkovitsa, Shtip; note: the seven communities, after the names of which “Skopje” appears in parentheses, together make up “Greater Skopje”. Staro-Nagorichina, Stravina, Struga, Strumitsa, Studenichani, Suto-Orizari (Skopje), Teartse, Tetovo, Topolchani, Tsentar-Zupa, Center (Skopje), Chapari, Cup, Chegrane, Chesinovo, Shipkovitsa, Shtip; note: the seven communities, after the names of which “Skopje” appears in parentheses, together make up “Greater Skopje”. Staro-Nagorichina, Stravina, Struga, Strumitsa, Studenichani, Suto-Orizari (Skopje), Teartse, Tetovo, Topolchani, Tsentar-Zupa, Center (Skopje), Chapari, Cup, Chegrane, Chesinovo, Shipkovitsa, Shtip; note: the seven communities, after the names of which “Skopje” appears in parentheses, together make up “Greater Skopje”.
Independence: September 17, 1991 (until 1991 – part of Yugoslavia).
National holiday: Uprising Day, August 2 (1903).
Constitution: adopted November 17, 1991, entered into force November 20, 1991; note: The Democratic Party of Albanians (DPA), currently represented in the government, is demanding a revision of the Constitution to give Albanians regional autonomy.
Legal system: based on the civil law system; judicial revision of legislative acts is allowed.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
head of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999);
head of the government: Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since November 30, 1998);
Government: council of ministers elected by a majority vote of all deputies of the Assembly; note – the current cabinet is formed by a ruling coalition consisting of VMRO-DPMNE, LDP and DPA; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held in October 2004); the prime minister is elected by parliament; elections last held in November 1998 (next to be held in 2002); election results: Boris TRAYKOVSKY elected President in the second round; percentage of votes – Boris TRAYKOVSKY 52.4%, Tito LetROVSKY (Tito PETKOVSKI) 46.2%.
Legislature: unicameral Assembly (120 seats – 85 members are elected by popular vote; 35 members of the Assembly are elected from party lists in proportion to the results of parties in general elections; the term of office of the chamber is 4 years); elections: last held on 18 October and 1 January 1998 (next to be held in 2002); election results: distribution of votes between parties – no data; distribution of seats between parties – VMRO-DPMNE 43, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13, DPA 11, VMRO-VMRO 6, LDP 4, SP 1, Gypsy Party 1.
Judiciary: Constitutional Court; Republican Court; the judges of both are elected by the Judicial Council.
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alternative (DA) (Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, chairman); Democratic Party of Albanians (DPA) (Arben XHAFERI, chairman); Internal Macedonian revolutionary organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) (Lubco GEORGIEVSKI, chairman); Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – The True Choice of Macedonian Transformation (VMRO-VMRO) (Boris STOJMANOV; Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) (Risto GUSTERVO); Democratic Prosperity Party (PDP) (Imeri IME- RI [Imeri IMERI], chairman); Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM) (former Communist Party) (Branko CRVENKOVSKI, chairman); Socialist Party of Macedonia (SP) (Ljubisav IVANOV), chairman); Roma Union of Macedonia (SRM) (leader – no data).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: ACCT (associate), BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer).
Diplomatic Representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Ljubica Z. ACEVSKA; office: 3050 K Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20007; phone:  (202) 337 3063; fax: [\) (202) 337-3093; consulates general: New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Michael EINIK; embassy: Bui. Ilinden bb, 91000 Skopje; mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch); phone:  (91) 116-180; fax:  (91) 117-103.
Flag Description: A yellow rising sun with eight rays radiating towards the edges of a red field.