General information: The Principality of Liechtenstein was founded as part of the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of the First World War, it was closely associated with Austria, but the economic devastation caused by this conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. After World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), low taxes in this state stimulated outstanding economic growth.
Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland.
Geographic coordinates: 47° 10′ N. latitude, 9° 32′ E
Reference map: Europe.
Area: total: 160 sq. km.; land surface area: 160 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: approximately 0.9 of the area of Washington, DC.
Land borders: total: 76 km; with neighboring states: with Austria 35 km, with Switzerland 41 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: continental; cold cloudy winter with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm cloudy humid summers.
Relief: predominantly mountainous (Alps), Rhine valley in the western third of the country.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Rugeler Riet 430 m; highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m.
Natural resources: hydropower potential, arable land.
Land use: arable land: 24%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 16%; forests and plantations: 35%; others: 25% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: no data.
Natural hazards: no data available.
Current environmental issues: no data available.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Air pollution, Air pollution – nitrogen oxides, Air pollution – sulfur 1985, Air pollution – sulfur 1994, Air pollution – volatile organic compounds, Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: Air Pollution – Persistent Organic Pollutants, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea.
Note to the section “Geography”: along with Uzbekistan, it is one of the two countries in the world, the path from which to the ocean runs through the territory of at least two states.
Population: 32,528 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 18.41% (male 2,992; female 2,996); 15 to 64 years old: 70.6% (male 11,455; female 11,511); over 65: 10.99% (male 1,439; female 2,135) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 0.98% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 11.53 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 6.7 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 4.98 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.01 male/female; up to 15 years: 1 male/female; from 15 to 64 years old: 1 male/female; over 65: 0.67 male/female; for the general population: 0.95 male/female (2001 est.)
Child mortality: 4.99 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 78.95 years; men: 75.32 years; women: 82.6 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.5 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: resident of Liechtenstein; adjective: Liechtenstein.
Ethnic groups: Germans 87.5%, Italians, Turks and others 12.5%. Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, non-denominational 7.7%, other 4.9% (1996).
Language(s): German (official), Alemannic dialect.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 10 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 100%; men: 100%; women: 100% (1981 est.).
Conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein;
conventional short form: Liechtenstein; local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein; local short form: Liechtenstein
State structure: hereditary constitutional monarchy. See a2zgov.com to know more about Liechtenstein government and politics.
Administrative division: 11 communes (Ge-meinde): Balzers, Vaduz, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggel, Triesen, Triesenberg, Shan, Schelenberg, Eschen.
Independence: 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein founded; July 12, 1806 became independent from the Holy Roman Empire.
National holiday: Assumption of the Mother of God, 15 August.
Constitution: October 5, 1921
Legal system: local civil and criminal laws; subject to the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 20 years old; universal.
chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since November 13, 1989, received executive powers on August 26, 1984); Crown Prince ALOIS (ALOIS von und zu Liechtenstein), son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968);
head of government: head of government Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993); Deputy Prime Minister Michael RITTER (since February 2, 1997);
Government: the cabinet is elected by the Landtag; approved by the monarch; elections: no; hereditary monarchy; after parliamentary elections, the monarch usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the Landtag as head of government, and the leader of the party with the second largest faction in the Landtag as deputy head of government.
Legislature: unicameral Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct universal suffrage by proportional system for 4 years); elections: last held 3-11 February 2001 (next to be held in 2005); election results: distribution of votes between parties: FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; distribution of seats among parties: FBP 13, VU 11, FL1.
Judiciary: Supreme Court (Oberster Ge-richtshof); High Court (Obergericht).
Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU) (Dr. Oswald KRANZ); Progressive Citizens Party (FBPL) (Dr. Ernst WALCH); Freedom List (FL) (Dr. Pepo FRICK, Karin JENNY, Rene HASLER).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO ( observer), WIPO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Liechtenstein does not have an embassy in the USA, in current diplomatic matters Liechtenstein is represented by the Swiss Embassy.
US Diplomatic Mission: The US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein.
Description of the flag: two equal horizontal stripes of blue (top) and red with a golden crown on the blue stripe from the side of the flagpole.