Background: Kyrgyzstan, a Central Asian country with beautiful nature and proud nomadic traditions, was incorporated into Russia in 1864. Independence was regained by the country in 1991. Today, among the main problems that need to be addressed: the privatization of state-owned enterprises, the development of democracy and political freedoms, improvement of inter-ethnic relations and terrorism.
Location: Central Asia, west of China.
Geographical coordinates: 41° 00′ N. latitude, 75° 00′ E
Reference map: Commonwealth of Independent States.
Area: total: 198,500 square kilometers; land surface area: 191,300 km2; water surface area: 7,200 km2;
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of North Dakota.
Land borders: total: 3,878 km; with neighboring states: with China 858 km, with Kazakhstan 1,051 km, with Tajikistan 870 km, with Uzbekistan 1,099 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: from dry continental to polar in the highlands of the Tien Shan; subtropical in the southwest (Fergana Valley); moderate in the northern foothills.
Relief: Tien Shan ranges, valleys and basins between them.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Karadarya river 132 m; highest point: Pobeda Peak (Jengish Cho-kusu) 7,439 m
Natural resources: hydropower resources; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; local significance of coal, oil and natural gas deposits; nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, zinc.
Land use: arable land: 7%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 44%; forests and plantations: 4%; others: 45% (1993 est.); Note: Kyrgyzstan has the largest natural walnut forest in the world.
Irrigated land: 9,000 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: no data available.
Actual problems of the environment: water pollution; many people use water directly from polluted sources, resulting in widespread water-borne diseases; soil salinization as a result of violation of irrigation technique.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Desertification, Climate change, Desertification, Hazardous waste, Ozone layer protection; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”: has no access to the sea.
Population: 4,753,003 people (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 35.03% (male 841,029; female 823,723); 15 to 64 years old: 58.83% (male 1,369,842; female 1,426,522); over 65: 6.14% (male 110,340; female 181,547) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 1.44% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 26.18 newborns / 1000 people, (2001 est.).
Mortality: 9.13 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 oc.).
Migration: -2.66 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; up to 15 years: 1.02 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.96 male/female; over 65: 0.6 male/female; for the general population: 0.95 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 76.5 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 63.46 years; men: 59.2 years; women: 67.94 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 3.19 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: less than 0.01% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 100 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Kyrgyz; adjective: Kyrgyz.
Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 52.4%, Russians 18%, Uzbeks 12.9%, Ukrainians 2.5%, Germans 24%, others 11.8%.
Believers: Muslim 75%, Orthodox 20%, other 5%.
Languages): Kyrgyz (official), Russian (official language); note: in March 1996, the country’s constitution was amended to make Russian an official language along with Kyrgyz.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 97%; men: 99%; women: 96% (1989 est.).
Common long form: Kyrgyz Republic;
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan; local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy; local short form: no; former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
State structure: republic. See a2zgov.com to know more about Kyrgyzstan government and politics.
Administrative division: 7 regions and 1 city (shaar)*: Batken, Bishkek*, Jalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul (Karakol), Naryn, Osh, Talas, Chui (Bishkek); note: administrative divisions have names derived from the names of their administrative centers, with the exception of those whose names of administrative centers are given in brackets.
Independence: from August 31, 1991 (until 1991 – as part of the Soviet Union.).
National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (since 1991).
Constitution: adopted May 5, 1993; note: President Askar AKAYEV proposed constitutional amendments to expand presidential powers at the expense of the legislature, which were approved in a referendum on February 10, 1996.
Legal system: based on the civil law system.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
head of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 22 December 2000);
Government: the Cabinet of Ministers is appointed by the President on the proposal of the Prime Minister; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held November-December 2005); the prime minister is appointed by the president; election results: Askar AKAEV re-elected president; percentage of votes: Askar AKAEV 74%, OmurbekTEKEBAEV (OmurbekTEKEBAYEV) 14%, other candidates 12%;; note – elections were accompanied by serious violations.
Legislature: bicameral Supreme Council (Zhogorku Kenesh); consists of the Assembly of People’s Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote for 5 years) and the Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote for 5 years); elections: People’s Congress – last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held in February 2005); Legislative Assembly – February 20 and March 12, 2000 (next to be held in February 2005); election results: Assembly of People’s Representatives, distribution of votes by party: NA; distribution of seats among parties: no data; Legislative Assembly, distribution of votes by parties: no data; distribution of seats among parties: no data; note – distribution of seats among parties throughout the composition of the Supreme Council: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My country’s action party 4, independents 73, others 10; note: the legislature became bicameral after the February 5, 1995 elections
Judiciary: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme Council on the proposal of the President for 10 years; Constitutional Court; Superior Court of Arbitration.
Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan (Uson S. SYDYKOV); Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan (Arkin Aliev [Arkin AYUE\/]); Ata-Meken (Fatherland) Socialist Party (Omurbek TEKEBAYEV); National Renaissance Banner Party (ASABA) (Chaprashty BAZARBAY); Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan (Jypar JEKSHEYEV, chairman); Democratic Women’s Party of Kyrgyzstan (T. A. SHAILIYEVA [T. A. SHAILIYEVA]); Party of Dignity (Felix KULOV [Feliks KU-LOV]); Progressive and Democratic Party of Free Kyrgyzstan (Tursunbay Bakir UULU); Party of Justice (Chingiz AITMATOV [Chingiz AYTMATOV]); National Salvation Movement (Djumgalbek AMAM-BAYEV [Djumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]); Mutual Aid Movement (Ashar) (Zhumagazi USUPOV [Zhuma-gazy USUPOV]); My country’s Action Party (Almazbek ISMANKULOV [Almazbek ISMANKU-LOV]); National United Democratic Movement (Yury RAZGULYAYEV [Yury RAZ-GULYAYEV]); Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan (Absamat MASAUYEV [Absamat MASAUYEV]); Party of Veterans of the War in Afghanistan (leader – no data); Peasant Party (leader – no data); People’s Party (Melis ESHIMKANOV [Melis ESHIMKANOV]); Party of Poor and Defenseless People (Daniyar UZENOV [Daniyar USE-NOV]); Republican People’s Party (SHAR-SHENALIYEV [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]); Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan (YBRAMOV [J. IBRAMOV]); Union of Democratic Forces (it includes the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, the Economic Revival Party and the Birimdik Party).
Political pressure groups and their leaders: Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee for Human Rights (Ramazan DYRYIDAYEV), National United Democratic Movement, Union of Entrepreneurs.
Participation in international organizations: AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic Representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV; office: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; phone:  (202) 338-5141; fax: [\] (202) 338-5139.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador John M. OKEE-FE; embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, 720016 Bishkek; postal address: the address of the embassy is used; phone:  (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217; fax:  (312) 551-264.
Flag description: red field with a yellow sun in the center; the sun has 40 rays, symbolizing 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the front side of the flag, the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse side – clockwise; in the center of the sun there is a red circle intersected by three two-row lines representing a stylized Kyrgyz ornament.