General information: Georgia became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years after the revolution (1918-1921), it was forcibly annexed to the USSR and was part of it until the collapse of this state in 1991. Russian troops have 4 military bases on the territory of Georgia (two should be abandoned by July 2001. ), and are also deployed as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Despite an extremely degraded transport network due to ethnic conflicts, crime and lack of fuel, the country continues to move towards a market economy and greater integration with the institutions of Western society.
Location: Southwest Asia, Black Sea coast between Turkey and Russia.
Geographic coordinates: 42° 00′ N. latitude, 43° 30′ E
Reference map: Commonwealth of Independent States.
Area: total: 69,700 km2; land surface area: 69,700 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of South Carolina.
Land borders: total: 1,461 km; with neighboring states: with Armenia 164 km, with Azerbaijan 322 km, with Russia 723 km, with Turkey 252 km.
Coastline: 310 km.
Maritime claims: no data.
Climate: warm and pleasant; similar to the mediterranean.
Relief: mostly mountains of the Greater Caucasus in the north and the Lesser Caucasus in the south; The Colchis lowland is open to the Black Sea in the west; the Kura river basin in the east; good soils of water meadows in the river valleys, the Colchis lowland passes into the foothills. Introduction
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m; highest point: Mount Kazbek 5,048 m.
Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil reserves; the coastal climate and soils allow for economic growth of tea and citrus crops.
Land use: arable land: 9%; cultivated land: 4%; pastures: 25%; forests and plantations: 34%; others: 28% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 4,000 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: earthquakes.
Current environmental issues: air pollution, especially in Rustavi; severe pollution of the Kura and the Black Sea; insufficient drinking water resources; soil pollution with toxic chemicals.
International environmental agreements: party to: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Climate change, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered species, Hazardous wastes, Law of the sea, Ozone layer protection, Ship pollution, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”:
Population: 4,989,285 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 19.59% (male 498,575; female 478,663); 15 to 64 years old: 67.91% (male 1,632,338; female 1,755,910); over 65: 12.5% (male 241,824; female 381,975) (2001 est.).
Population growth: -0.59% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 11.18 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 14.58 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -2.48 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.04 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.93 male/female; over 65: 0.63 male/female; for the general population: 0.91 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 52.37 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 64.57 years; men: 61.04 years; women: 68.28 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.45 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: less than 0.01% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 500 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Georgian; adjective: Georgian.
Ethnic groups: Georgians 70.1%, Armenians 8.1%, Russians 6.3%, Azerbaijanis 5.7%, Ossetians 3%, Abkhazians 1.8%, other 5%.
Believers: adherents of the Georgian Orthodox Church 65%, Muslims 11%, adherents of the Russian Orthodox Church 10%, adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church 8%, unknown 6%.
Language(s): Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azerbaijani 6%, other 7%; note: Abkhazian (official in Abkhazia).
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 99%; men: 100%; women: 98% (1989 est.). State Name:
Common long form: no;
conventional short form: Georgia; local long form: no; local short form: Sak’art’velo; former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
State structure: republic. See a2zgov.com to know more about Georgia government and politics.
Administrative division: 53 districts, 9 cities*, 2 autonomous republics**: Abasha, Abkhazia** (Sukhumi), Adzharia** (Batumi), Adizheni, Ambrolauri, Aspindza, Akhalgori, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Akhmeta, Baghdati, Bolnisi, Borjomi, Vani, Gardabani, Gori, Gori*, Gurjaani, Dedop-Listskvaros, Java, Dmanisi, Dusheti, Zestafoni, Zugdidi, Zugdidi*, Kazbegi, Kaspi, Kvareli, Kvar-li, Kutaisi*, Lagodekhi, Lanchkhuti, Lentekhi, Marneuli, Martvili, Mestia, Mtskheta, Ninotsmindi, Ozurgeti, Oni, Poti*, Rustavi*, Sagarejo, Sam-tredia, Sachkhere, Senaki, Signakhi, Tbilisi*, Telavi, Terjoli, Tetriskvaros, Tianeti, Tki-buli*, Kharagauli, Khashuri, Khobi, Khoni, Tsageri, Tsalenjikha, Tsapki, Tskhaltubo*, Chiatura*, Chokha-tauri, Chkhorotsku; note: the names of administrative units are derived from the names of their centers (exceptions are given in brackets).
Independence: from April 9, 1991 (until 1991 – as part of the USSR).
National holiday: Independence Day, May 26 (1918).
Constitution: adopted October 17, 1995.
Legal system: based on the civil law system.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected Chairman of the State Council 10 March 1992; Council dissolved; elected Chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; President since 26 November 1995); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of the government: President Eduard Amvrosievich SHEVARDNADZE (was previously elected Chairman of the State Council on March 10, 1992; the Council was dissolved; elected Chairman of the Parliament on October 11, 1992; President since November 26, 1995); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
Government: cabinet of ministers; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a 5-year term; elections last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held in 2005); election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE re-elected president; voting results – Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80%.
Legislature: unicameral Supreme Council (parliament) (Umaghiesi Sabcho) (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote for 4 years); elections: last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held in 2003); election results: distribution of votes between parties: CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%, IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received less than 7% each; distribution of seats among parties: CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15, Abkhaz deputies 12, independents 17, others 3.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the President; Constitutional Court.
Political parties and leaders: Union of Citizens of Georgia (CUG) (Eduard SHEVARDNADZE); United Communist Party of Georgia (UCPG) (Panteleimon GIOR-GADZE, chairman); Production Will Save Georgia (IWSG) (Georgi TOPADZE [Georgi TOPA-DZE]); National Democratic Party (NDP) (Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA [Irina SA-RISHVILI-CHANTURIA]); Socialist Party (SPG) (Temur GAMTSEMLIDZE [Temur GAMTSEM-LIDZE]); Union ‘Renaissance’ (AGUR) (Aslan ABASHIDZE [Alsan ABASHIDZE]); United Republican Party (URP) (Nodar NATADZE, chairman).
Political influence groups and their leaders: Georgian refugees from Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in the Georgian parliament); Abkhazian separatists; supporters of the previous president, Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA, who are in opposition.
Participation in international organizations: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILQ, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic Representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE; office: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone;  (202) 387-2390; fax: [C (202) 393-4537.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Kenneth S. YALOWITZ; embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, Tbilisi 380026; postal address: use the address of the embassy; phone:  (32) 989-967, 989-968; fax:  (32) 933-759.
Flag Description: maroon field with a small rectangle in the upper left corner; the rectangle is horizontally divided into a black part at the top and a white part at the bottom.