The European continent was the scene of great revolutions and human achievements, so the culture in Europe has a great prominence.
Europe, according to the physical aspects and its geological formation, is considered by many scientists as a continent that corresponds to a peninsula of Eurasia. This means the union of Asia and Europe itself,is located in the northern hemisphere. Europe is constituted as a continent due to historical events, because in this territory there were the main cultural, political and economic dispersions, which expanded its influence at an international level.
For a characterization of the main events that occurred in Europe, it is possible to highlight, mainly, colonialism, imperialist expansion, the Roman and Greek civilizations, the Renaissance, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the first economic block in the world. From the examples cited, it is clear to realize that Europe was and still is the stage of great human achievements.
The cultural separation occurred from two sides: on one side is the Roman and Greek civilization, both representatives of the Europe; the other side is the Asian, Arab, Hindu and Chinese representatives. This was a cultural separation and there is not so much physical value, because what was taken into account were the cultural, religious and economic disparities, unique to each group.
Today, with the advanced stage of globalization, the West has promoted great influence in the East, something that rarely happened in the 19th century. Despite the immense distribution of culture and knowledge from Europe to the world, really those who emerged from culture to both continents all left the East, for example, Christianity.
European dominance in the world began during the 15th and 16th centuries, through the search for the expansion of its territory. This was possible through the great navigation, in which it was necessary to extract wealth in other continents to supply the needs of the market in constant expansion, as the number of the population grew. Because they developed the political and cultural aspects internally, they managed to establish dominion over other peoples, as they had knowledge in science, military strategy and technologies.
It was precisely at this moment in history that the expressions “civilized” and “wild” were created. These denominations had the main purpose of differentiating the Greco-Roman culture, also called classic and Europeanized civilizations. However, this distinction between two groups can now be identified. Just look at the group of richest countries in the world, except the United States and Japan, all are European.
In the European conception, the rest of the world is limited to a “bed” of economic, environmental and social exploitation, labor and the consumer market. The great western European metropolises present works with a large amount of gold and silver, acquired at the expense of the work of slaves and natives from the exploitation of the colonies. Today there is a great fortune in precious stones kept in financial institutions.
Currently, the European Union represents an offensive existence against American hegemony that has lasted since the decline of socialism led by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which was ever the only one to face the USA.
Italy’s prehistory is the country’s history in the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age until around the year 700 before our time. Traces have been found for Neanderthal humans and for people from older Paleolithic times. In the Middle Paleolithic period, the findings of the abbeil and acheulene character are. The Aurignacien culture is represented in Late Paleolithic times. A statue of a naked woman – probably a fertility symbol – and cave images are dated to 12–9. millennium BCE, that is towards the end of the last ice age.
From Mesolithic times the climate has been relatively constant. The use of the bow and arrow now made hunting easier. The transition to the younger Stone Age (Neolithic times) – with better tools, with grain cultivation, animal husbandry and firmer village communities – is set at 4000-3000 BCE. From now on, central Italy has an ever-increasing diversity of prehistoric cultures.
Important sites such as Molfetta in the south, Ripoli in central Italy and others have given names to archaeological cultural groups. At Lagozzo near Milan, characteristic ceramics and spinning wheels and looms have been found that tell about the fabrication of textiles, dated to ca. 2800 or later. Remedello has found 117 skeletal graves from the transition phase between the younger Stone Age and the Bronze Age (c. 1800–1600 BCE). The dead are in a fetal position and have brought with them flat axes, daggers and daggers in copper and arrowheads of flint.
From this time we also have the so-called palafite or pile-dwelling culture in Northern Italy, created by immigrants from the north. They introduced burnt burial in the urn, built villages on piles in lakes and were hunters, fishermen and landowners. They kept livestock, including horses, and perhaps used wagons. Cultural groups in southern Italy show influence from the Aegean area.
The bronze age
The most well-known Bronze Age cultures (c. 1600–1200 BCE) are the non-uniform, partially Eastern-influenced Apennine culture along the mountain range of the same name and the Northern Italian Territory culture, which, among other things, in bronze work clearly points to the Danube region (Hungary).
Terramare culture is named after “the fat earth” used by farmers in the 19th century as fertilizers, and which turned out to hide old settlements. The Terramar people lived in round or oval cabins and represented a more advanced material culture than the former. The Terramar people also cremated their dead. A special type of past memories are the rich rock carvings in Valcamonica, which have their closest parallels in southern Scandinavia.
The iron age
The Iron Age began in Italy just after 1000 BCE. Among the more well-known cultural groups of this period are the Villanova culture in Tuscany. The culture is almost only known from grave finds, which among other things have given us a number of round cabin models. Hunting, animal husbandry and agriculture have been dominant industries. The rich burial goods testify that crafts such as forging and ceramics have been high. Probably, the Villanova culture is regarded as a continuation of the Terramare and Apennine culture, regardless of immigration.
The beginning of the Iron Age, however, is linked to the ever-increasing immigration of foreign tribes, especially those who spoke Indo-European dialects. They came rather smoothly than in great bumps; early representatives were the Palafite and Terramar people. Mixture of mutual influence modified both cultural types and languages, however, making Indo-European the dominant linguistic element throughout Italy.
When Greeks and Etruscans are exempted, the major groups in Italy’s population at the transition to historical time are as follows: in northwestern ligurians and in northeast venets and raets; in central Italy the ” Italic ” tribes: the Tevere Latins, faliskere and others, as well as further south the so-called umbro-saber exchangers partly with strong non-Indo-European elements: Sabines, Aequa, Mars, Volsk, Vestin, fretaner and samnitter; further south south, who did not originally speak Indo-European, jeopardy (perhaps characterized by elements from Illyria) and Sicily sickles.
Are you planning to attend an European college? Then, you have come to the right place! We have carefully reviewed each of 4-year colleges and universities in the continent of Europe and the following are the top 50 public and private programs listed by rank scores. The following colleges and universities in France, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, and other countries in Europe (refer to Countryaah.com for a full list of European nations) have been many times ranked by education experts based on their academic excellence and employment statistics. Please note that all universities were reviewed yearly based on their academic reputations, research ability and graduate performance.
#1. University of Oxford – United Kingdom Oxford
#2. University of Cambridge – United Kingdom Cambridge
#3. Imperial College London – United Kingdom London
#4. University College London – United Kingdom London
#5. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich – Switzerland Zurich
#6. University of Edinburgh – United Kingdom Edinburgh, Scotland
#7. University of Copenhagen – Denmark Copenhagen
#8. King’s College London – United Kingdom London
#8. Sorbonne Universite – France Paris
#10. University of Amsterdam – Netherlands Amsterdam
#11. University of Munich – Germany Munich
#12. École Polytechnique Federale of Lausanne – Switzerland Lausanne
#13. Karolinska Institute – Sweden Stockholm
#14. Utrecht University – Netherlands Utrecht
#15. Catholic University of Leuven – Belgium Leuven
#15. Heidelberg University – Germany Heidelberg
#17. University of Zurich – Switzerland Zürich
#18. University of Manchester – United Kingdom Manchester
#19. Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite-USPC (ComUE) – France Paris
#20. Erasmus University Rotterdam – Netherlands Rotterdam
#21. Technical University of Munich – Germany Munich
#22. Wageningen University and Research Center – Netherlands Wageningen
#23. University of Bristol – United Kingdom Bristol
#24. PSL Research University Paris (ComUE) – France Paris
#24. VU University Amsterdam – Netherlands Amsterdam
#26. Ghent University – Belgium Gent
#26. University of Helsinki – Finland Helsinki
#28. Leiden University – Netherlands Leiden
#28. University of Glasgow – United Kingdom Glasgow, Scotland
#30. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin – Germany Berlin
#30. Lund University – Sweden Lund
#30. University of Oslo – Norway Oslo
#33. University of Geneva – Switzerland Geneva
#33. University of Southampton – United Kingdom Southampton
#35. University of Birmingham – United Kingdom Birmingham
#35. University of Groningen – Netherlands Groningen
#37. University of Barcelona – Spain Barcelona
#38. Uppsala University – Sweden Uppsala
#39. Radboud University Nijmegen – Netherlands Nijmegen
#40. Aarhus University – Denmark Aarhus C
#40. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – United Kingdom London
#40. University of Bonn – Germany Bonn
#43. University of Bern – Switzerland Bern
#44. Stockholm University – Sweden Stockholm
#45. University of Bologna – Italy Bologna
#45. University of Padua – Italy Padua
#47. Université Paris-Sud – France Orsay
#48. Queen Mary, University of London – United Kingdom London
#48. Sapienza University of Rome – Italy Rome
#50. Freie Universität Berlin – Germany Berlin
Should you be interested in slangs or acronyms about Europe, you can follow AbbreviationFinder to see associations, fund, government or NGOs containing the location of Europe.