Background: The Republic of Ecuador was one of three countries that formed as a result of the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others were Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador has lost some territory in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. The border conflict with Peru, which began in 1995, was resolved in 1999.
Location: Western South America, Pacific coast at the equator, between Colombia and Peru.
Geographic coordinates: 2° 00′ S. latitude, 77° 30′ W
Reference map: South America.
Area: total: 283,560 km2; land surface area: 276,840 km2; water surface area: 6,720 km2; note: including the Galapagos Islands.
Comparative area: somewhat smaller than the state of Nevada.
Land borders: total: 2,010 km; with neighboring states: with Colombia 590 km, with Peru 1,420 km.
Coastline: 2,237 km.
Maritime claims: continental shelf: claims the continental shelf between the mainland coast and the Galapagos Islands; territorial waters: 200 nautical miles.
Climate: Tropical along the coast, getting cooler in the higher elevations inland; tropical in the Amazon jungle.
Terrain: coastal plain, Andean plateau (sierra), flat or hilly jungle landscape in the east.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m; highest point: Mount Chimborazo 6,267 m.
Natural resources: oil, fish, timber, hydropower.
Land use: arable land: 6%; cultivated land: 5%; pastures: 18%; forests and plantations: 56%; others: 15% (1993 est.).
Irrigated lands: 5,560 sq. km. (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts.
Current environmental issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil refinery waste.
International environmental agreements: party to: Antarctica – Environmental Protection Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Waste, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical timber 1983, Tropical timber 1994, Wetlands;…. *signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”: Mount Cotopaxi in the Andes is the highest active volcano in the world.
Population: 13,183,978 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 35.8% (male 2,398,801; female 2,320,537); 15 to 64 years old: 59.81% (male 3,900,193; female 3,984,797); over 65: 4.39% (male 269,372; female 310,278) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 25.99 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 5.44 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -0.55 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.03 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.98 male/female; over 65: 0.87 male/female; for the general population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 34.08 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 71.33 years; men: 68.52 years; women: 74.28 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 3.12 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 0.29% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 19,000 (1999 est.)
AIDS deaths: 1,400 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Ecuadorian; adjective: Ecuadorian.
Ethnic groups: mestizos (descendants of marriages of Indians and Spaniards) 65%, Indians 25%, Spaniards and others 7%, blacks 3%.
Believers: Catholics 95%.
Languages): Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially Quechua).
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 90.1%; men: 92%; women: 88.2% (1995 est.).
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador;
conventional short form: Ecuador; local long form: Republica del Ecuador; local short form: Ecuador
State structure: republic.
Administrative divisions: 22 provinces: Asu-ay, Bolivar, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Canyar, Carchi, Cotopaxi, Los Rios, Loja, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pi-chincha, Zamora- Chinchipe, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Chimborazo, El Oro, Esmeraldas.
Independence: from May 24, 1822 (from Spain).
National holiday: Independence Day, August 10 (1809) (Quito’s independence is proclaimed).
Constitution: adopted August 10, 1998
Legal system: based on the civil law system; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old, universal, compulsory for literate people from 18 to 65 years old, for others at will.
chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000), became president after President Jamil MAHUAD was removed; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubia-nes (since January 28, 2000); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of the government: President Gustavo NOBOA (since January 22, 2000), became president after President Jameel MAHUAD was removed; Vice President Pedro PINTO Rubianes (since January 28, 2000); note – the president is both head of state and head of government; elections: president and vice president are elected on the same list by popular vote for four years (not re-elected); elections last held 31 May 1998; the second round took place on 12 July 1998 (next to be held in 2002); election results: last election results before coup: Jamil MAHUAD elected president with 51% of votes; note: a military and indigenous coup led to the ouster of democratically elected President Jameel MAHUADA on January 21, 2000; the military handed over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on January 22; then Congress chose a new vice president from a list of candidates proposed by NOBOA; the new administration will remain in office until the end of the term of the former president, MAHOADA, in January 2003. See a2zgov.com to know more about Ecuador government and politics.
Legislature: unicameral National Congress (121 seats; 79 members elected by popular vote for 4 years, representing the whole country; 42 members elected by popular vote by provinces, two from each province, for 4 years); elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held in 2002); election results: distribution of votes between parties: no data; distribution of seats among parties: DP 32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note – there are frequent party to party transitions, so the distribution of seats in the National Congress changes.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, new judges are elected by the entire Supreme Court.
Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP) (Averroes BUCARAM [Averroes BUCARAM]); Democratic Left (ID) (Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos); the Ecuadorian Conservative Party (PCE) (Sixto DURAN Bal-len); Independent National Movement (MIN) (leader – no data); Pashakutik – New Country (P-NP) (Rafael PANDAM [Rafael PANDAM]); People’s Democracy (DP) (Ramiro RIVERA [Ramiro RIVERA]); People’s Democratic Movement (MPD) (leader – NA); Alfarista Radical Front (FRA) (Fabian ALARCON, leader); Roldoist Party (PRE) (Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, leader); Social Christian Party (PSC) (Jaime NEBOT Saadi, President).
Political influence groups and their leaders: Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Ecuador (CONAIE) (Antonio VARGAS); Coordinating Committee of Social Movements (CMS) (F. Napoleon SANTOS); Popular Front (FP) (Luis VILLACIS).
Participation in international organizations: CAN, ССС, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Yvonne A-BAKI; office: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; phone:  (202) 234-7200; fax:  (202) 667-3482; consulates general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, San Francisco.
US Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Gwen CLARE; embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito; mailing address: ARO AA 34039; phone:  (2) 562-890; fax:  (2) 502-052; Consulate General: Guayaquil.
Description of the flag: three horizontal stripes of yellow (top, double width), blue and red with the coat of arms located in the center of the flag; similar to the Colombian flag, which is shorter and lacks a coat of arms.