General information: The country gained independence in 1960 (before 1960 – a colony of Great Britain), while constitutional guarantees of the Greek majority to the Turkish minority were provided. In 1974, an attempted coup d’etat was provoked by Greece, which led to the landing of Turkish troops on the island, which established control over 40% of the territory in the northern part of the island. In 1983, the zone of Turkish occupation was declared the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognized only by Turkey. Negotiations resumed in December 1999 to pave the way for a comprehensive settlement. See areacodesexplorer.com to know more about Cyprus History.
Location: Middle East, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey.
Geographic coordinates: 35° 00′ N. latitude, 33° 00′ E
Reference map: Middle East.
Area: total: 9,250 km2 (including 3,355 square kilometers in the Turkish part); land surface area: 9,240 km2; water surface area: 10 sq. km.
Comparative area: about 0.6 the area of the state of Connecticut.
Land borders: 0 km.
Coastline: 648 km.
Maritime claims: continental shelf: to a depth of 200 m or to the depth of field development; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: temperate Mediterranean, hot dry summers and cool winters.
Terrain: plains in the center, mountains in the north and south, significant plains along the southern coast.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m; highest point: Mount Troodos (Olympus) 1,951 m.
Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, salt, timber, marble, ocher.
Land use: arable land: 12%; cultivated land: 5%; pasture: 0%; forests and plantations: 13%; others: 70% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 390 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: moderate earthquakes; drought.
Current environmental issues: lack of water (no natural catchment areas, seasonal differences in precipitation, infiltration of seawater into the island’s aquifer, increasing soil salinity in the north); pollution of the sea by industrial and municipal effluents, degradation of the coast; the disappearance of natural communities due to urbanization.
International environmental agreements: party to: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Climate change, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered species, Environmental change, Hazardous waste, Law of the sea, Marine pollution, Nuclear test ban, Ozone layer protection, Pollution from ships; signed but not ratified: Air Pollution – Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Note to the section “Geography”:
Population: 762,887 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 22.95% (male 89,532; female 85,518); 15 to 64 years old: 66.26% (men 255,368; women 250,140); over 65: 10.79% (male 35,846; female 46,465) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 0.59% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 13.08 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 7.65 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 0.44 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.05 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.02 male/female; over 65: 0.77 male/female; for the general population: 1 male/female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 7.89 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 76.89 years; men: 74.6 years; women: 79.3 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.93 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 0.1% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 400 (1999 est.).
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: Cypriot; adjective: Cypriot.
Ethnic groups: Greeks 78% (99.5% in the Greek zone; 0.5% in the Turkish zone), Turks 18% (1.3% in the Greek zone; 98.7% in the Turkish zone), other 4% (99.2% in the Greek zone; 0.8% in the Turkish zone).
Believers: Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronites, followers of the Armenian Apostolic Church and other 4%.
Language(s): Greek, Turkish, English.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 94%; men: 98%; women: 91% (1987 est.).
Common long form: Republic of Cyprus;
conventional short form: Cyprus; note: the Turkish zone refers to itself as the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus”.
State structure: republic; note: the split between the two ethnic groups began after the outbreak of intercommunal clashes in 1963; this division was further reinforced by the Turkish intervention in July 1974, following an attempted coup d’état inspired by the Greek junta, which allowed the Turkish Cypriots to establish de facto control over the northern part of the island; the international community recognizes only the government of the Greek community; On November 15, 1983, the “president” of the Turkish community, Rauf DENKTASH, proclaimed an independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which was recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly spoke in favor of a resolution on the division of communities and the creation of a new federal (the position of the Greek community) or confederal (the position of the Turkish community) system of government.
Capital: Nicosia; note: the capital of the Turkish community is Lefkosa (Nicosia).
Administrative division: 6 districts: Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos, Famagusta; note – the Turkish zone includes Kyrenia, all of Famagusta, except for a small part, small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca.
Independence: August 16, 1960 (before 1960 – a colony of Great Britain); note: the Turkish community declared its independence on February 13, 1975.
National holiday: Independence Day, October 1; note – the Turkish community celebrates Independence Day on 15 November (since 1983).
Constitution: adopted August 16, 1960; negotiations to lay the foundation for a new or to revise the constitution and improve relations between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots are periodically renewed; in 1975, the Turkish community adopted its constitution and created its own state under the name “Turkish Federative State of Cyprus”, renamed in 1983 to the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus”, the new constitution was adopted by the Turkish community in a referendum on May 5, 1985.
Legal system : based on customary law with elements of civil law.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
head of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since February 28, 1993); note – the president is both head of state and head of government; the post of vice president is vacant; according to the constitution of 1960, he is reserved for the representative of the Turkish community;
head of government: President Glafcos CLERY-DES (since 28 February 1993); note – the president is both head of state and head of government; the post of vice president is vacant; according to the constitution of 1960, he is reserved for the representative of the Turkish community;
Government: the Council of Ministers is appointed jointly by the President and Vice President; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a 5-year term; elections last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held in February 2003); election results: Glafcos CLERIDES re-elected president; percentage of votes: Glafkos CLERIDEZ 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%; note: Rauf DENKTAS has been the “president” of the Turkish part of the island since February 13, 1975 (the “president” is elected by popular vote for 5 years); elections last held on 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held in April 2000); results – Rauf DENKTAS re-elected president; percentage of votes: Rauf DENKTAS 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU (Dervis EROG-Ш) 37.5%; Dervis EROGLU has been the “Prime Minister” of the Turkish part of the island since August 16, 1996;
Legislature: Greek community – unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli Anti-prosopon) (80 seats; 56 members are elected by Greeks, 24 by Turks; note – now only deputies from the Greek community are elected; members are elected by popular vote for 5 years); the Turkish community – the Assembly of the Republic (Cum-huriyet Meclisi) (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote for 5 years); elections: Greek Community: last held 27 May 2001 (next to be held May 2006); Turkish community: last held on 6 December 1998 (next to be held in December 2003); election results: Greek Community: House of Representatives, distribution of votes between parties: NA; distribution of seats among parties: AKEL 20, DISY 19, DIKO 9, KISOS 4, others 2; Turkish community: Assembly of the Republic, distribution of votes between parties: UBP 40.3%, DP 22.6%, TKR 15, 4%, STR 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; distribution of seats among parties: UBP 24, DP 13, TKR 7, STR 6.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice; note: the Turkish community has its own Supreme Court.
Political parties and leaders: Greek community: Democratic Party (DIKO) (Tassos PAPADOPOULOS [Tassos PAPADOPOULOS]); Democratic Gathering (DISY) (Nikos ANASTASIADHIS); Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL) (communists) (Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS); Social Democratic Movement (KISOS) (formerly United Democratic Union of Cyprus [EDEK]) (Vassos LYSSARIDIS); United Democrats Movement (EDI) (former Free Democrats Movement [KED] (George VASSILIOU); Turkish community: Community Liberation Party (TKP) (Mustafa AKINCI); Democratic Party (DP) (Salih KOSAR (Salih CO-SAR); National Renaissance Party (UDP) (Enver EMIN); National Unity Party (UBP) (Dervis EROGLU); Our Party (BP) (Okyay SADIKOGLU); United Patriotic Movement (YBH) (Izzet IZCANJ); Turkish Republican Party (TR) (Mehmet ALI TALAT).
Political pressure groups and their leaders: Cypriot Workers’ Confederation (SEK) (pro-Western); Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions (Dev-ls); Turkish Cypriot Trade Union Federation (Turk-Sen); All-Cypriot Workers’ Federation (REO; controlled by the communists).
Participation in international organizations: Australia Group, C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS; office: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; phone:  (202) 462-5772; fax: [\] (202) 483-6710; consulates general: New York; note: the Turkish community in the US is represented by Ahmet ERDENGIZ: office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone  (202) 887-6198.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Donald K. BANDLER; embassy: corner of Metochiou/Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia; mailing address: R. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836; phone:  (2) 776400; fax:  (2) 780944.
Flag description: white with a copper-colored island in the center (cyprus is Greek for copper) and two green crossed olive branches below it, symbolizing the hope for peace between the Greek and Turkish communities; note: the flag of the Turkish part of Cyprus has two horizontal red stripes above and below, between which there is a red crescent and a red star on a white field.