Daugavpils, German Dünaburg, formerly Russian Dwinsk, Dvinsk, city in the southeast of Latvia, on the Düna, (2019) 82 600 residents.
University (founded 1921); Mechanical engineering (including agricultural and machine tools), man-made fiber works, metal processing, automotive suppliers, electrotechnical and food industries; River port, transport hub with rail connections to Riga, Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Vilnius.
The fortress (built 1810–78) has been preserved almost unchanged.
Founded in 1278 by the Teutonic Order as a border fortress, Daugavpils came under Polish-Lithuanian rule in 1561 and in 1569 with Letgallen to Poland-Lithuania; Destroyed by Ivan IV in 1577, occupied by the Russians from 1656–67, Daugavpils came to Poland in 1667, with the 1st partition of Poland in 1772 to Russia (expansion into a fortress) and in 1920 to the Republic of Latvia.
Liepāja, German Libau, 1795–1918 Russian Libawa, port city in Latvia, on the Baltic Sea, between Liepājasee and Tosmaresee, (2019) 69,000 residents.
Catholic and Protestant bishopric; University, Technical University, School of Applied Arts (focus: amber processing), History and Art Museum; City Theatre; Metallurgy (iron smelting), mechanical engineering, automotive supply, light, textile and food industries (fish processing, sugar factory); Wind farm, ice-free fishing and deep sea port with oil terminal; Special economic zone; Seaside resort. The military port formerly used by the Soviet Navy has been converted for civil use. Tourism is gaining in importance. Ferry service to Lübeck-Travemünde, airport.
Evangelical Trinity Church (1742–58; tower from 1866) with magnificent interior; Evangelical Church of St. Anne (16th century; redesigned in 1893) with carved wooden altar from 1697.
At Liepāja, first mentioned in 1253 as a Curonian settlement, the Teutonic Order built a castle in 1263. In 1625 Liepāja received city rights. In 1795 it fell to Russia with the Duchy of Courland, for which it was of great economic and military importance as an ice-free port. In 1918 Liepāja came to Latvia; In 1919 it was the temporary seat of the Latvian provisional government. Occupied by German troops in 1941–45 during World War II. During the Soviet period, Liepāja was an important naval base.
Jelgava, Russian Jelgawa, Elgava [ jε-], formerly German Mitau, city in Latvia, in the Kurzeme Aa (Latvian Lielupe), (2019) 56,000 residents.
Catholic bishopric; Agrarian University; Vehicle and mechanical engineering, wood processing and food industry, sugar factory; Railway junction.
Baroque castle of the Dukes of Courland (1738–40 and 1763–72; three-wing complex), Valdekas castle (late 19th century), Villa Medem (1818), baroque-classical Academia Petrina (1773–75; today art and history museum), Evangelical Church of St. Anne (1619–41; altarpiece by J. Rozentāls).
In addition to the Ordensburg built in 1265, a settlement was built, which was granted city rights around 1580. 1561–1795 Jelgava was the residence of the Dukes of Courland and came to Russia in 1795 (until 1915 seat of the governor of the Russian province of Courland); Occupied by German troops 1915–19. 1918-40 Jelgava was the capital of the Latvian province of Zemgale (Latvian Zemgale). The city was badly damaged in the Second World War.
Jurmala [ ju ː r], city in Latvia, (2019) 49,300 residents.
15 km west of Riga, stretches along the coast between the Courland Aa (Latvian Lielupe) and Riga Bay, was formed in 1959 from several cities; traditional Latvian lake and spa (sulfur springs); Art, historical museum; important tourism, local recreation area for Riga.
Riga, capital and only major city of Latvia, on the Daugava, near its confluence with the Riga Bay (Baltic Sea), with (2019) 632 600 residents. Visit rctoysadvice for Riga Latvia.
The academy of sciences, universities and colleges make the city the educational center of the country. Important cultural institutions are also the national theater, opera and library as well as the many museums.
More than half of Latvian industrial production is produced in Riga. Benefiting from the port and the largest airport in the Baltic States, Riga has also developed into an important trading center.
The city center to the right of the Daugava was badly damaged in the Second World War; now it has been largely rebuilt and is now a UNESCO World Heritage (World Heritage). Significant architectural monuments include, among others. the Cathedral or Marienkirche (begun in 1215, restored in 1595 after fire), the St. Petri Church (13th century, rebuilt in the 15th century) and the “House of the Blackheads” (built in 1330, rebuilt in the 17th century). Riga is also known for its many Art Nouveau buildings.
Riga, founded in 1201 by German merchants, became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1282 and over the centuries belonged to Poland, Sweden and Russia before becoming the Latvian capital in 1918.