Zimbabwe Politics

Zimbabwe Politics, Population and Geography

Background: Britain annexed Southern Rhodesia from the ‘South Africa Company’ monopoly in 1923. The 1961 constitution was specifically designed to preserve white power. In 1965, the government unilaterally declared the country’s independence, but Great Britain did not recognize this act as valid and demanded suffrage for the black African majority of the country (then called […]

Zambia Politics

Zambia Politics, Population and Geography

Background: The territory of Northern Rhodesia was controlled by the ‘South Africa Company’ monopoly until Britain took control in 1923. In the 1920s and 1930s the progress of the country’s mining industry accelerated its development and spurred immigration. Northern Rhodesia changed its name to Zambia after gaining independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s […]

Uganda Politics

Uganda Politics, Population and Geography

General information: Uganda gained independence in 1962 (until 1962, a protectorate of Great Britain). The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-1979) is responsible for the death of 300,000 of its opponents; guerrilla warfare and civil rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-1985) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s The government announced a transition to a […]

Tunisia Politics

Tunisia Politics, Population and Geography

General information: After independence in 1956 (until 1956 – protectorate of France) President Habib Bourguiba (Habib BOURGIU-BA) established a rigid one-party rule. He ruled the country for 31 years, suppressing the activities of Islamic fundamentalists and providing the female part of the population with rights unprecedented in the Arab world. In recent years, Tunisia has […]

Togo Politics

Togo Politics, Population and Geography

Background: French Togo became the independent state of Togo in 1960. General Gnassingbe EYADEMA, a military ruler who came to power in 1967, is the longest-serving head of state in Africa. Despite the formally multi-party elections of 1993, which were won by EYADEMA, the government continues to be dominated by the military. In addition, Togo […]

Tanzania Politics

Tanzania Politics, Population and Geography

General information: In 1964, shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged into a single state, called Tanzania. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first elections since the 1970s. democratic elections. Zanzibar’s semi-autonomous status and popular resistance have caused two elections won by the ruling party since 1995 to be dubious by international observers. Geography […]

Swaziland Politics

Swaziland Politics, Population and Geography

General information: Britain granted autonomy to the South African Swazi tribe at the end of the 19th century; independence was proclaimed in 1968. In the 1990s. student and worker uprisings forced the monarchy (one of the oldest on the continent) to begin political reform and democratization. Geography Location: South Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa. […]

Sudan Politics

Sudan Politics, Population and Geography

General information: Since independence in 1956 (until 1956 – a colony of Great Britain), the country was mainly ruled by various pro-Islamic military governments. Over the past 20 years, civil wars between black Christians and animists from the south and Muslim Arabs from the north have killed at least 1.5 million people, including due to […]

Somalia Politics

Somalia Politics, Population and Geography

General information: The SIAD BARRE regime collapsed in January 1991, and riots and clashes between factions and anarchy tormented the country for 9 years. In May 1991, the northern clans proclaimed the independent Republic of Somaliland, which now includes the regions of Avdal, Vokuyi-Galbid, Togdir, Sanaag, and Sul. Although this republic is not recognized by […]

Rwanda Politics

Rwanda Politics, Population and Geography

General information: In 1959, three years before independence, Rwanda’s largest ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the then-ruling Tutsi king. Over the next few years, thousands of Tutsis were killed and approximately 150,000 were forced to flee to neighboring countries. Subsequently, the children of these refugees created the Patriotic Front of Rwanda and in 1990 started […]

Nepal Politics

Nepal Politics, Population and Geography

Background: In 1951, the King of Nepal ended the century-long system of hereditary prime ministers and established a cabinet of ministers. The reforms of 1990 led to the establishment of a multi-party democracy within a constitutional monarchy. The problem of about 100,000 Bhutanese refugees in Nepal has not yet been resolved; 90% of them are […]

Morocco Politics

Morocco Politics, Population and Geography

Background: Morocco’s long struggle for independence from France ended in 1956. In the same year, the “international zone” of Tangier became part of the new country. In the late 1970s Morocco has, in effect, annexed Western Sahara, but the status of this territory has not yet been definitively determined. Gradually carried out in the 1990s. […]

Mauritania Politics

Mauritania Politics, Population and Geography

Background: Having achieved independence from France in 1960, in 1976 Mauritania annexed the southern third of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara), but abandoned these lands after three years of attacks by the guerrilla Polisario Front, which sought the territory’s independence. In 1991 opposition parties were legalized and a new constitution adopted. Twice since then, […]

Mali Politics

Mali Politics, Population and Geography

General information: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal achieved independence in 1960 (until 1958 – French colonies), forming the Federation of Mali. Just a few months later Senegal withdrew from the federation and the Republic of Sudan was renamed Mali. The era of dictatorship ended in 1991 with the establishment of an interim government, and in […]

Malawi Politics

Malawi Politics, Population and Geography

Background: The English Protectorate of Nyasaland, established in 1891, became the independent Republic of Malawi in 1964. In 1994, after three decades of one-party rule, the country’s first multi-party elections were held under an interim constitution that came into full force on next year. National multi-party elections were again held in 1999. Geography Location: South […]

Madagascar Politics

Madagascar Politics, Population and Geography

General information: Once an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1886, but regained independence in 1960. In 1992-93. free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of one-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential election, Didier RATSIRAKA, who led the country in the 1970s and 1980s, was elected president. […]

Libya Politics

Libya Politics, Population and Geography

Background: After a military coup in 1969, Colonel Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI seized power and introduced his own political system in the country – a combination of socialism and Islam, which he himself calls “the third international theory “. Considering himself a revolutionary leader, in the 1970s and 1980s. QADDAFI used oil revenues to spread […]