General Information: The heyday of the Sultanate of Brunei falls on the period of the 15th-17th centuries, when its control extended to the northwestern coastal regions of the island of Borneo and to the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline, fueled by internal strife over succession to the throne, colonial expansion by European powers, and piracy. In 1888 Brunei became a British protectorate; gained independence in 1984. Brunei has vast deposits of oil and natural gas, thanks to which it has one of the highest rates of GDP per capita among underdeveloped countries. See areacodesexplorer.com to know more about Brunei History.
Location: Southeast Asia, coast of the South China Sea, bordering Malaysia.
Geographical coordinates: 4° 30′ N. latitude, 114° 40’E
Reference map: Southeast Asia.
Area: total: 5,770 km2; land surface area: 5,270 km2; water surface area: 500 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware.
Land borders: total: 381 km; with neighboring states: with Malaysia 381 km.
Coastline: 161 km.
Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles or to the median line; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy.
Terrain: flat coastal plain rising to the east and turning into mountains; rolling lowlands in the west.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m; highest point: Mt. Bukit Pagon 1,850 m.
Natural resources: oil, natural gas, dog.
Land use: arable land: 1%; cultivated land: 1%; pastures: 1%; forests and plantations: 85%; others: 12% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 10 sq. km. (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: Very rare typhoons, earthquakes and severe floods.
Current environmental issues: dry season smog as a result of forest fires in Indonesia.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Endangered species, Law of the Sea, Protection of the ozone layer, Pollution from ships; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”: located near the busy sea routes passing through the South China Sea and linking the Indian and Pacific Oceans; the two parts of the country are separated by the territory of Malaysia; in fact, it is surrounded on all sides by the territory of Malaysia.
Population: 343,653 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 30.77% (male 53,977; female 51,772); 15 to 64 years old: 66.52% (male 121,601; female 107,007); over 65: 2.71% (male 4,449; female 4,847) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2.11% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 20.45 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 3.38 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 4.07 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male/female; under 15: 1.04 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.14 male/female; over 65: 0.92 male/female; for the population in the flail: 1.1 male / female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 14.4 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 73.82 years; men: 71.45 years; women: 76.31 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 2.44 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adult population infected with HIV: 0.2% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 100 (1999 est.).
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: Brunei; adjective: Brunei.
Ethnic groups: Malays 62%, Chinese 15%, Indigenous 6%, Others 17%.
Believers: Muslims (Islam is the official religion) 67%, Buddhists 13%, Christians 10%, adherents of local beliefs and other 10%.
Language(s): Malay (official), English, Chinese.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 88.2%; men: 92.6%; women: 83.4% (1995 est.).
Common long form: State of Brunei Darussalam;
Common short form: Brunei.
State structure: constitutional sultanate.
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan.
Administrative division: 4 districts (daerah): Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong.
Independence: from January 1, 1984 (until 1984 – protectorate of Great Britain).
National holiday: National Day, February 23 (1984); note – January 1, 1984 – declaration of independence from Great Britain, February 23, 1984 – termination of the British protectorate.
Constitution: adopted on September 29, 1959 (some articles suspended after the introduction of a state of emergency in December 1962, others after independence on January 1, 1984).
Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, in some cases, Islamic Sharia law prevails over civil law.
chief of state: sutan and prime minister His Majesty HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note – the monarch is both head of state and head of government;
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note – the monarch is both head of state and head of government;
Government: Cabinet Council, appointed and chaired by the monarch; exercises executive power; note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) discussing religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) discussing religious matters, and a Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) deciding, if necessary, the question of the heir to the throne; elections: no; hereditary monarchy.
Legislature: unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri) (has only advisory functions; the number of seats is unknown; members of the council are appointed by the monarch); elections: elections last held in March 1962; note: in 1970 the sultan issued a decree making the council non-elected; resume! activity of the elected legislator! This council is seen as part of the constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely to take place in the next few years.
Judiciary: Supreme Court; presidents of the court and judges are sworn in by the monarch) term of office – 3 years.
Political parties and leaders:
Political influence groups and their leaders: Brunei National Unity Party (BRKU) (Ha, Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin [Haji Mot* NATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin], Chairman), the only legal political party in | Brunei, was established in 1985, but after 1988! was not active, was restored in 1995 and again in 1998; counts! less than 200 registered members; other! parties: Brunei People’s Party (PRB) (banned-1 in 1962), Brunei National! Democratic Party (registered May 1965, Bruneian government canceled registration in 1988).
Participation in international organizations: ARES, ARF, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WIP0, WMO, WTrO.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni Mohammad Alam; Office: 3520 International Court NW, Washing-! ton, DC 20008; phone:  (202) 342-0159; fax: [\] (202) 342-0158.
US Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD; embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan; mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507; phone:  (2) 229670; fax:  (2) 225293.
Flag Description: yellow, with two diagonal stripes of white and black (the white stripe on top is almost twice as wide as the black stripe) running from the upper part of the side adjacent to the pole; in the center of the flag is the national coat of arms in red; the coat of arms depicts a forked banner above a winged column, located inside an upwardly turned crescent, located above the scroll and surrounded on both sides by arms raised to the sky.