General information: The declaration of sovereignty by Bosnia and Herzegovina in October 1991 was followed by a referendum held in February 1992, which resulted in the declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia. The Bosnian Serbs, supported by neighboring Serbia, responded with armed resistance, the purpose of which was to divide the country along ethnic lines and unite the territories occupied by the Serbs into “Greater Serbia”. In March 1994, the Bosniaks and Croats living in Bosnia reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement to form a united Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On November 21, 1995, the warring parties signed a peace agreement in Dayton, Ohio, ending a three-year ethnic civil war (the final agreement was signed in Paris on December 14, 1995). ). Under the Dayton Accords, the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was divided approximately equally between the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, inhabited by Bosnian Serbs. In 1995-96 a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops was present in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreements. IFOR has been replaced by a smaller contingent of NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR), whose task is to stop attempts to resume hostilities. The SFOR remain in Bosnia with approximately 21,000 troops. See areacodesexplorer.com to know more about Bosnia and Herzegovina History.
Location: Southeastern Europe, located on the Adriatic Sea and bordering Croatia.
Geographical coordinates: 44° 00′ N. latitude, 18° 00′ E E.
Reference map: Central Balkans, Europe.
Area: total: 51,129 km2; land surface area: 51,129 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of West Virginia.
Land borders: total: 1,459 km; with neighboring states: with Croatia 932 km, with Yugoslavia 527 km.
Coastline: 20 km.
Maritime claims: no data.
Climate: summer is hot, winter is cold; in the highlands, cool summers and long, severe winters; in coastal areas, winters are mild and rainy.
Terrain: mountains and valleys.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m; highest point: Mount Maglic 2,386 m.
Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, copper, chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower.
Land use: arable land: 14%; cultivated land: 5%; pastures: 20%; forests and plantations: 39%; others: 22% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 20 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes.
Current environmental issues: major accidents, air pollution from metallurgical plants; a limited number of places suitable for dumping urban waste; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure as a result of the 1992-95 civil war.
International environmental treaties: party to: Air pollution, Climate change, Law of the sea, Marine life conservation, Nuclear test ban, Ozone layer protection; signed but not ratified: no.
Note to the section “Geography”: within the established borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country is divided into the united Bosnian-Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-ruled Republika Srpska (PC) (about 49% of the territory); an area called Herzegovina adjacent to Croatia, it has traditionally been inhabited by an ethnic Croatian majority.
Population: 3,922,205; note: all population figures are very approximate due to war and ethnic cleansing (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 20.13% (male 405,713; female 383,850); 15 to 64 years old: 70.78% (male 1,422,796; female 1,353,410); over 65: 9.09% (male 150,802; female 205,634) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 1.38% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 12.86 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 7.99 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 8.91 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male/female; under 15: 1.06 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.05 male/female; over 65: 0.73 male/female; for the general population: 1.02 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 24.35 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 71.75 years; men: 69.04 years; women: 74.65 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 1.71 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 0.04% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
AIDS deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: resident of Bosnia and Herzegovina; adjective: Bosnian.
Ethnic groups: Serbs 31%, Bosniaks 44%, Croats 17%, Yugoslavs 5.5%, others 2.5% (1991); note: the term “Bosniaks” (Bosniak) replaced the term “Muslims” (used in an ethnic sense) to avoid the identification of ethnic and religious characteristics.
Believers: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%, other 10%.
Language(s): Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian.
Literacy: definition: no data; for the general population: no data available; men: no data; women: no data.
Conventional long form: does not exist;
Common short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina; local long form: does not exist; local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina. I
State structure: emerging democracy.
Administrative divisions: There are two first order administrative divisions: the Bosnian-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-ruled Republika Srpska; note – Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing administrative unit within Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is not part of either the Federation or the Republika Srpska.
Independence: March 1, 1992 (until 1992 – as part of Yugoslavia).
National holiday: National Day, 25 November (1943).
Constitution: The Dayton Accords, signed on December 14, 1995, constitute the new, current constitution.
Legal system: based on the civil law system.
Suffrage: from 16 years old for employees; from the age of 18 universal.
head of state: Chairman of the Presidium Jozo KRIZANOVI (Chairman since June 14, 2001, Member of the Presidium since March 2001, Croat); the other two of the three members of the Presidium, who take turns chairing every eight months, are Zivko RADISIC (since October 13, 1998, Serb) and Beriz BELKIC (since March 2001, Bosnian); note – Ante JELAVIC was removed from his post by the UN High Commissioner in March 2001;
head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA (since 18 July 2001);
Government: members of the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, approved by the National House of Representatives; elections: three members of the Presidium (one Bosniak, one Croat and one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the one who receives the most votes becomes the chairman, unless he (she) was the current chairman at the time of the election; elections last held 12-13 September 1998 (next to be held in September 2002); the chairman of the council of ministers is appointed by the Presidium, approved by the National House of Representatives; election results: percentage of votes – Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the votes of the Serbs was elected chairman of the collective Presidium for the first eight months; Ante JELAVIC replaced RADISIC with 52% of the Croatian vote; Alija IZETBEGOVIC, with 87% of the Bosnian vote, won the highest percentage of votes, but he could not become chairman for a second term until RADISIC and JELA-VICH completed their first terms as chairman of the Presidium; IZETBEGOVICH left the Presidium on 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Khalid GENJAC; note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since February 27, 2001; Vice-President Safet HALILOVIC (since February 27, 1999); note – President and Vice-President change places each year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since November 11, 2000). until RADISIC and JELA-VIC completed their first terms of office as Chairman of the Presidium; IZETBEGOVICH left the Presidium on 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Khalid GENJAC; note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since February 27, 2001; Vice-President Safet HALILOVIC (since February 27, 1999); note – President and Vice-President change places each year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since November 11, 2000). until RADISIC and JELA-VIC completed their first terms of office as Chairman of the Presidium; IZETBEGOVICH left the Presidium on 14 October 2000 and was temporarily replaced by Khalid GENJAC; note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Karlo FILIPOVIC (since February 27, 2001; Vice-President Safet HALILOVIC (since February 27, 1999); note – President and Vice-President change places each year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since November 11, 2000). Vice President Safet HALILOVIC (since February 27, 1999); note – president and vice president change places each year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since November 11, 2000). Vice President Safet HALILOVIC (since February 27, 1999); note – president and vice president change places each year; President of the Republika Srpska: Mirko SAROVIC (since November 11, 2000).
Legislature: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly (Skupstina), consisting of the National House of Representatives (Predstav-nicki Dom) (42 seats – 14 Serbs, 14 Croats and 14 Bosniaks; members of the house are directly elected for two years) and the House of the People (Dom Naroda) (15 seats – 5 Bosniaks, 5 Croats, 5 Serbs; members of the House are elected by the House of Representatives of the Bosnian-Croat Federation and the National Assembly of the Republika Srpska for two years); as of January 1, 2001, Bosnia and Herzegovina did not have a permanent electoral law; the draft law establishes a four-year term of office for the legislature of the state and administrative divisions of the first order; in 2000, elections were held for two years on the assumption that permanent legislation would be enacted before 2002; elections: National House of Representatives – Election last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in Fall 2002); House of the People – last appointed November 11, 2000 (next to be held in autumn 2002); election results: National House of Representatives – distribution of votes between parties/coalitions – NA; number of seats for parties/coalitions – SDP 9, SDA 8, SDS 6, HDZ-BiH 5, SBH 5, PDP 2, NHI 1, BPS 1, DPS 1, SNS 1, SNSD-DSP 1, DNZ 1, SPRS 1; House of Peoples – distribution of votes between parties / coalitions – no data; number of seats for parties/coalitions – no data; note: the Bosnian-Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature, consisting of the House of Representatives (140 seats; members of the house are directly elected for 4 years); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next expected in 2002); distribution of votes between parties – no data; seats per party/coalition – SDA 38, SDP 37, HDZ-BiH 25, SBH 21, DNZ 3, NHI 2, BPS 2, DPS 2, BOSS 2, GDS1, RP1, HSS1, LDS1, PPFBiH 1, SNSD-DSP 1, HKDU 1, HSP 1; and the House of the People (74 seats – 30 Bosniaks, 30 Croats and 14 representatives of other nationalities); the last time the composition was appointed in November 2000; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members of the chamber are directly elected for 4 years); elections last held 11 November 2000 (next to be held in 2002); distribution of votes between parties – no data; number of seats for parties / coalitions – SDS 31, PDP 11, SNSD 11, SDA 6, DSP 4, SDP 4, SPRS 4, SBH 4, DNS 3, SNS 2, NHI 1, DSRS1, PP1; as of January 1, 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina did not have a permanent electoral law; the draft law establishes a four-year term of office for the legislature of the state and administrative divisions of the first order; in 2000, elections were held for a two-year term, with the assumption that permanent legislation would be enacted before 2002.
Judiciary: 9-member Constitutional Court: 4 appointed by the House of Representatives of the Bosnian-Croat Federation, 2 by the National Assembly of the Republika Srpska, and 3 members who are not citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, appointed by the President of the European Court of Human Rights; note: the new State Court, established in November 1999, hears cases concerning national laws and can appeal cases initiated in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska; in every part of the state there is a Supreme Court, also a number of lower courts; in total, there are 10 regional courts and a number of municipal courts in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Republika Srpska has five municipal courts.
Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party (BOSS) (Mirnes AJANO-VIC); Bosnian Patriotic Party (BPS) (Sefer HALILOVIC [Sefer HALILOVIC]); Civil Democratic Party (GDS) (Ibrahim SPAHIC [Ibrahim SPAHIC]); Croatian Christian Democratic Union (HKDU BiH) (Ante PASALIC); Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ-BiH) (leadership vacant); Croatian Party of the Right (HSP) (Zdravko HRSTIC [Zdravko HRSTIC]); Croatian Peasants’ Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HSS-BiH) (Ilija SIMIC); Democratic Action Party (SDA) (Aliya IZETBEGOVICH); Democratic National Alliance (DNS) (Dragan KOSTIC); Democratic Party of Pensioners (DSP) (Alojz KNEZOVIC [Alojz KNEZOVIC]); Democratic Party of the Republika Srpska (DSRS) (Dragomir DUMIC [Dragomir DUMIC]); Democratic People’s Union (DNZ) (Fikret ABDIC [Fikret ABDIC]); Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) (Nebojsa RADMANO-VIC); Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) (Rasim KADIC, chairman); New Croatian Initiative (NHI) (Kresimir ZUBAK); Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SBH) (Haris SILAJDZIC) Democratic Progress Party (PDP) (Mladen IVANIC) Party of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) (Milorad DODIK) Federation Pensioners Party Bosnia and Herzegovina (PPFBiH) (Husein VOJNI-KOVIC), Republika Srpska Pensioners’ Party (PP) [Stojan BOGOSAVAC] Republican Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (RP) (Stjepan KLJUIC); Serbian Democratic Party (“Serbian Lands”) (SDS) (Dragan KALINIC [Dragan KALINIC]); Serbian National Alliance (SNS) (Bipjana PLAVSIC [Biljana PLAVSIC]); Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (SDP-BiH) (Zpat-ko LAGUMDZIA); Socialist Party of the Republika Srpska (SPRS) (Zivko RADISIC).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: BIS, CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer).
Diplomatic Representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Igor DAVIDOVIC; office: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037; phone:  (202) 337-1500; fax:  (202) 337-1502; consulates general: New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER; embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo; postal address: use the address of the embassy; phone.- (71) 445-700; fax:  (71) 659-722.
Description of the flag: a wide blue vertical stripe on the outer side of the flag with a yellow isosceles triangle adjacent to the stripe and to the top of the flag; the rest of the flag is blue, seven five-pointed white stars depicted in full, and two – depicted half on the upper and lower parts of the flag, are placed along the hypotenuse of the triangle on a blue field.