Bhutan Politics

Bhutan Politics, Population and Geography

General information: In 1907, under the influence of Great Britain, a monarchy was established in Bhutan; three years later, an agreement was signed, according to which the country turned into a British protectorate. Bhutan gained independence in 1949, subsequently India began to determine the country’s foreign policy and provide assistance to it. The fate of the 100,000 Bhutanese in Nepapa remains unresolved; 90% of these displaced persons live in the seven UN Refugee Camps. Assamese Maoist separatists from India, based in southeastern Bhutan, are carrying out attacks on the border regions of India. See to know more about Bhutan History.


Location: South Asia, between China and India.
Geographical coordinates: 27° 30′ N. 90° 30′ E
Reference map: Asia.
Area: total: 47,000 square kilometers; land surface area: 47,000 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: about half the area of ​​the state of Indiana.
Land borders: total: 1,075 km; with neighboring states: with China 470 km, with India 605 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: different; tropical on southern plains; in the valleys of the central part of the country, cool winters and hot summers; The Himalayas have harsh winters and cool summers.
Terrain: mostly mountains, also small fertile valleys and savannahs.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Dangme River (Drangme Chhu) 97 m; highest point: Mount Kula-Kangri 7,553 m.
Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide (carborundum).
Land use: arable land: 2%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 6%; forests and plantations: 66%; others: 26% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 340 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: severe thunderstorms originating in the Himalayas, hence the name of the country, which translates as “land of the thunder dragon”; frequent landslides during the rainy season.
Actual problems of the environment: soil erosion; limited supplies of drinking water.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Biodiversity, Climate change, Nuclear test ban; signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea.
Note to the section “Geography”: landlocked; Bhutan occupies a strategic position between China and India; controls some key Himalayan mountain passes.


Population: 2,049,412; note: according to other estimates, no more than 800,000 people. (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 39.99% (male 424,832; female 394,725); 15 to 64 years old: 56.05% (men 591,152; women 557,498); over 65: 3.96% (male 41,125; female 40,080) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2.17% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 35.73 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 14.03 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 0 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.08 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.06 male/female; over 65: 1.03 male/female; for the general population: 1.07 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 108.89 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 52.79 years; men: 53.16 years; women: 52.41 years (2001 est.).
General birth rate: 5.07 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: less than 0.01% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 100 (1999 OC).
Mortality due to AIDS: no data available.
Nationality: noun: Bhutanese; adjective: Bhutanese.
Ethnic groups: Bhotiya 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%.
Believers: Lamaist Buddhists 75%, Hindus 25%.
Languages): Dzongkha (official), Bhotiya speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepali dialects.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 42.2%; men: 56.2%; women: 28.1% (1995 est.). State Name:


Common long form: Kingdom of Bhutan;
Common short form: Butane.
State structure: monarchy; special contractual relationship with India.
Capital: Thimphu.
Administrative divisions: 18 dzongs (dzon-gkhag): Bumthang, Wangdi-Phodrang, Geilegphug, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samdrup-Jongkhar, Samchi, Taga, Tashigang, Ton-gsa, Thimphu, Ha, Chirang, Chhukha, Shemgang.
Independence: from August 8, 1949
National holiday: National Day, December 17 (1907) (on this day Ugyen WANGCHUCK became the first hereditary king).
Constitution: there is no written constitution or bill of rights; note: 1953 Royal Decree establishing a National Assembly in Bhutan; On July 7, 1998, a royal edict was ratified, according to which the National Assembly was endowed with additional powers.
Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; does not accept the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: Each family has one vote in elections at the village level.
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Sangay NGEDUP (since 1999);
Government: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shun-gtsog), appointed by the monarch and approved by the National Assembly; Council members serve a fixed five-year term; note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde) whose members are appointed by the monarch; elections: not held; hereditary monarchy, however, as a result of democratic reforms in July 1998, the National Assembly received the right to remove the monarch, subject to a two-thirds majority.
Legislature: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu) (150 seats; 105 are elected by rural voters, 10 represent religious institutions, and 35 are appointed by the monarch to represent state and other secular interests; the term of the assembly is 3 years); elections: no data on the date of the last elections (no data on the date of the next elections); election results: no data.
Judiciary: The monarch acts as the Chief Judge of Appeal; The High Court, in which judges are appointed by the monarch.
Political parties and leaders: There are no permitted parties.
Political influence groups and their leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading an armed struggle against the government; a community of Indian merchants; United Front for Democracy (active in exile).
Participation in international organizations: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTrO (observer).
Diplomatic representation in the USA: no; note – Bhutan has a permanent mission to the UN; address; 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, New York 10017; telephone [1] (212) 826-1919; the mission of Bhutan to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the United States; consulates general: New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: The US and Bhutan do not have formal diplomatic relations, but informal contacts are maintained through the US Embassy in New Delhi, India.
Description of the flag: divided by a diagonal coming from the bottom corner of the side adjacent to the pole; the upper triangle is yellow, the lower one is orange; in the center, along the diagonal dividing line, a large black and white dragon is depicted, looking away from the staff.

Bhutan Politics