Bangladesh Politics

Bangladesh Politics, Population and Geography

General information: The state of Bangladesh appeared on the world map in 1971, when the Bengali East Pakistan left the union with West Pakistan. Every year, a third of this extremely poor country is flooded during the monsoons during the rainy season, hindering normal economic development. See to know more about Bangladesh History.


Location: South Asia, on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, between Myanmar and India.
Geographical coordinates: 24° 00′ N. latitude, 90° 00′ E
Reference map: Asia.
Area: total: 144,000 square kilometers; land surface area: 133,910 km2; water surface area: 10,090 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of Wisconsin.
Land borders: total: 4,246 km; with neighboring states: with Myanmar 193 km, with India 4,053 km.
Coastline: 580 km.
Maritime claims: neutral waters: 18 nautical miles; continental shelf: to the outer limits of the continent; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical; cool dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); cool rainy monsoon season (June to October).
Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plains; hills in south-east
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m; highest point: Mt. Keokradong 1,230 m.
Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber.
Land use: arable land: 73%; cultivated land: 2%; pastures: 5%; forests and plantations: 15%; others: 5% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 31,000 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country is regularly flooded during the summer rainy season.
Current environmental issues: Land is scarce and many people are forced to cultivate land subject to periodic flooding; surface water contains numerous pathogens; water pollution, especially in fishing areas, due to the use of pesticides; groundwater is contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic; lack of water due to lower groundwater levels in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overcrowding.
International agreements on environmental protection: member: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Change, Hazardous Waste, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: Law of the Sea.
Note to the section “Geography”:


Population: 131,269,860 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 35.04% (male 23,550,607; female 22,451,006); 15 to 64 years old: 61.6% (male 41,423,123; female 39,414,633); over 65: 3.36% (male 2,389,639; female 2,011,852) (2001 est.)
Population growth: 1.59% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 25.3 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 8.6 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -0.76 people / 1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male/female; under 15: 1.05 male/female; from 15 to 64 years old: 1.05 male/female; over 65: 1.19 male/female; for the general population: 1.05 male/female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 69.85 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 60.54 years; men: 60.74 years; women: 60.22 years (2001 est.);
General birth rate: 2.78 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 0.02% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 13,000 (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 1,000 (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi; adjective: Bangladeshi.
Ethnic groups: Bengalis 98%, tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims.
Believers: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998).
Languages): Bengali (official), English.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 56%; men: 63%; women: 49% (2000 est.). State Name:


Common long form: People’s Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh; former: East Pakistan.
State structure: republic.
Capital: Dhaka.
Administrative division: 5 regions: Bari-sal, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Chittagong; note: another area may stand out: Sylhet.
Independence: December 16, 1971 (until 1971 – part of Pakistan).
National holiday: Independence Day, March 26 (1971); note – On March 26, 1971, independence from West Pakistan was proclaimed, December 16, 1971 is known as Victory Day, the official declaration of the state of Bangladesh is celebrated.
Constitution: adopted on November 4, 1972, entered into force on December 16, 1972, suspended after the coup d’état on March 24, 1982, restored on November 10, 1986; amended several times.
Legal system: based on the English common law system.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996) note – the president usually performs ceremonial functions, but under the 13th amendment to the Constitution (the “Provisional Government Amendment”) the presidency becomes significant during the period when parliament is dissolved and a provisional government headed by the president is formed to supervise elections;
head of the government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 23 July 1996);
Government: the cabinet is formed by the prime minister and appointed by the president; elections: the president is elected by the National Parliament for a five-year term; elections last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held in October 2001); after the election, the president appoints the leader of the party that won the most seats in parliament as prime minister. election results: unopposed Shahabuddin AHMED elected president; percentage of votes in the National Parliament – no data.
Legislature: unicameral National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad) (330 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote in a single territorial constituency, 30 seats are reserved for women; the term of office of parliament is 5 years); elections: elections last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held 13 October 2001); election results: distribution of votes between parties – AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%; number of seats – AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, L 3, others 3; note – 12 June 1996 elections brought Awami League government to power for the first time in 21 years; held under the control of a neutral interim administration, the elections proceeded peacefully and in an orderly manner and were marked by a massive voter turnout; thus, a way out of the impasse was found,
Judiciary: The Supreme Court, Chief Justices and other judges are appointed by the President.
Political parties and leaders: People’s League (AL) (Sheikh HASINA); Communist Party of Bangladesh (BCP) (Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK); Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) (Khaleda ZIA ur Rahman); Jamaat-e-Islami (L) (Motiur Rahman NIZAMI [Motiur Rahman NIZA-MI]); Jatiya Party (JP) (Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: AsDB, С, ССС, СР, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Tariq KARIM (A. Tariq KA-RIM); office: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; phone: [1] (202) 244-0183; Consulates General: Los Angeles, New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Mary Ann PETERS; embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212; postal address: GPO Box 323, Dhaka 1000; phone: [880] (2) 884700 no 884722; fax: [880] (2) 883744.
Description of the flag: green with a large red disc slightly off-center towards the side adjacent to the pole; the red sun of freedom symbolizes the blood shed for independence; the green field represents the fertile countryside, and green is the traditional color of Islam.

Bangladesh Politics