General information: Armenia, a Christian country, was incorporated into Russia in 1828, and in 1920 into the USSR. Armenia remains embroiled in a long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly Armenian-populated area ceded by Moscow in the 1920s. Soviet Azerbaijan. Armenia and Azerbaijan started an armed struggle for Nagorno-Karabakh in 1988; hostilities flared up again in 1991, after both countries achieved independence from the Soviet Union. By May 1994, when the ceasefire agreement came into force, Armenian troops had not only captured Nagorno-Karabakh, but also occupied a significant part of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both warring parties have been severely affected by the inability to make any significant progress towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict. See areacodesexplorer.com to know more about Armenia History.
Location: Southwest Asia, east of Turkey.
Geographical coordinates: 40° 00′ N. latitude, 45° 00′ E
Reference map: Commonwealth of Independent States.
Area: total: 29,800 km2; land surface area: 28,400 km2; water surface area: 1,400 km2
Comparative area: slightly smaller than the state of Maryland.
Land borders: total: 1,254 km; with neighboring states: with Azerbaijan proper 566 km, with Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan Republic) 221 km, with Georgia 164 km, with Iran 35 km, with Turkey 268 km.
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked).
Maritime claims: none (landlocked).
Climate: alpine continental, hot summers, cold winters.
Relief: Armenian Highlands; small areas of forests; stormy rivers; fertile soils in the Arak river valley.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Debed River 400 m; highest point: Mount Aragats 4,095 m.
Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina.
Land use: arable land: 17%; cultivated land: 3%; pastures: 24%; forests and plantations: 15%; others: 41% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 2,870 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: Strong earthquakes occur from time to time; drought.
Current environmental issues: soil contamination with toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation as a consequence of the energy blockade as a result of the conflict with Azerbaijan, when the inhabitants used wood as fuel; pollution of the Hrazdan and Arak rivers; the draining of Lake Sevan as a result of its use as a source for generating electricity, which poses a threat to drinking water supplies; restart of the Metsamor NPP without proper safety measures (recommended by the IAEA) and the presence of redundant systems.
International environmental agreements: party to: Air pollution, Biodiversity, Climate change, Desertification, Hazardous waste, Nuclear test ban, Ozone layer protection, Wetlands; signed but not ratified: Air Pollution – Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Note to the section “Geography”: has no access to the sea.
Population: 3,336,100 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 23.23% (male 394,194; female 380,911); 15 to 64 years old: 67.4% (male 1,094,646; female 1,141,760); over 65: 9.73% (male 135,477; female 189,112) (2001 est.).
Population growth: -0.21% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 11.47 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 9.74 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -3.87 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.03 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 0.96 male/female; over 65: 0.71 male/female; for the general population: 0.95 male/female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 41.27 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 66.49 years; men: 62.12 years; women: 71.08 years (2001 est.);
General birth rate: 1.5 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: 0.01% (1999).
Number of people infected with HIV: less than 500 people. (1999).
AIDS deaths: less than 100 deaths (1999).
Nationality: noun: Armenian; adjective: Armenian.
Ethnic groups: Armenians 93%, Azerbaijanis 3%, Russians 2%, other (mainly Yazidi Kurds) 2% (1989); note: by the end of 1993, almost all Azerbaijanis had emigrated from Armenia.
Believers: Armenian Church 94%.
Language(s): Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 99%; men: 99%; women: 98% (1989 est.). State Name:
Common long form: Republic of Armenia;
conventional short form: Armenia; local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun; local short form: Hayastan former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic.
State structure: republic.
Administrative division: 10 marzes and 1 city*: Aragats, Ararat, Armavir, Vanadzor, Geghar-kunik, Yerevan*, Kotayk, Lori, Syunik, Tavush, Shirak.
Independence: from September 23, 1991 (until 1991 – as part of the Soviet Union).
National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September.
Constitution: adopted by national referendum on July 5, 1995.
Legal system: based on the civil law system.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998);
head of government: Prime Minister Andranik MARKARYAN (since 12 May 2000);
Government: a council of ministers appointed by the prime minister; elections: the president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; early elections were last held on 30 March 1998 (next to be held in March 2003); the prime minister is appointed by the president; election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; distribution of votes – Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIR-CHYAN (Karen DEMIR-CHYAN) 41%.
Legislature: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) (Azgayin Zhog-hov) (131 seats; members of the House are elected for a four-year term); elections: elections last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in spring 2003); election results: distribution of votes between parties – no data; seats—United Bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People’s Party of Armenia 20), Group for Stability (a bloc formed by independent deputies) 21, Communists 10, Dash-Naktsutyun 8, Law and Unity Party 7, National Democratic Union 6, Law Party 6, Independents 10, 2 seats available; note – the distribution of seats by party changes frequently.
Judiciary: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court.
Political parties and leaders: Armenian Communist Party (Vladimir DARBINIAN [Vladimir DARBINIAN]); Pan-Armenian National Movement (Vano SIRADE-GIAN, Chairman); Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun Party) (Vahan HAVHANNISIAN); Christian Democratic Union (Azat AR-SHAKYN, Chairman); Democratic Liberal Party (Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman); Free Armenian Mission (Ruben MNATSA-NIAN, Chairman); Party of Law and Unity (Artashes GEGAMIAN, Chairman); Rule of Law Party (Artur BAGDASARIAN, Chairman); Mission Party (Artush PAPOIAN, Chairman); National Democratic Union (Vazgen MANUKIAN [Vaz-gen MANUKIAN]); National State Party (Samvep SHAGINIAN [Samvel SHAGINIAN]); People’s Party of Armenia (Stepan DEMIRCHYAN); Republican Party (Andranik MARKARYAN [Andranik MARKARYAN]); Shamiram Women’s Movement (SWM) (Maria NERSISSIAN); Social Democratic Party (Yeghia NA-CHARIAN); Stability Group (Vartan AYVAZIAN, Chairman); National Self-Determination Union (NSDU) (Paruir HAIRIKIAN, Chairman).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, !OM, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic Mission to the United States: Head of Mission: Ambassador Armen KIRAKOSIAN; office: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008; phone:  (202) 319-1976; fax:  (202) 319-2982; Consulates General: Los Angeles.
US Diplomatic Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador Michael LEMMON; embassy: 18 General Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan; mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7020; phone:  (2) 52-16-11; fax:  (2) 151-550.
Description of the flag: three identical horizontal stripes of red (top), blue and orange.