Argentina Politics

Argentina Politics, Population and Geography

General information: After gaining independence in 1816 (until 1816 – the confluence of Spain), Argentina experienced several periods of acute internal political conflicts between conservatives and liberals, as well as between civilian and military groups. After World War II and a long Peronist dictatorship, a military junta came to power in 1976. Democracy was restored in 1983, and the fact that several election campaigns have taken place since then highlights Argentina’s progress in consolidating democracy. See to know more about Argentina History.


Location: southern part of South America, coast of the South Atlantic Ocean between Chile and Uruguay.
Geographic coordinates: 34° 00′ S. latitude, 64° 00′ W
Reference map: South America.
Area: total: 2,766,890 km2; land surface area: 2,736,690 km2; water surface area: 30,200 km2
Comparative area: slightly less than three tenths of the US.
Land borders: total: 9,665 km; with neighboring states: with Bolivia 832 km, with Brazil 1,224 km, with Chile 5,150 km, with Paraguay 1,880 km, with Uruguay 579 km.
Coastline: 4,989 km.
Maritime claims: neutral waters: 24 nautical miles; continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the outer limits of the continent; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in the southwest.
Terrain: rich plains of the Pampa in the north, flat or rolling plateaus in Patagonia in the south, Andes along the western border.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Salinas Chicas depression -40 m (on the Vapdes peninsula); highest point: Mount Aconcagua 6,960 m.
Natural resources: fertile plains of Pampa, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, oil, uranium.
Land use: arable land: 9%; cultivated land: 1%; pastures: 52%; forests and plantations: 19%; others: 19% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 17,000 km2 (1993 est.).
Natural Hazards: The Andes areas of San Miguel de Tucumán and Mendoza are prone to earthquakes; violent storms in Pampa and in the northeast (pampero); severe floods.
Current environmental issues: Environmental issues (urban and rural) are typical of the industrial economy: soil degradation, desertification, air and water pollution; note: Argentina is a world leader in limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
International agreements on environmental protection: party to: Antarctica – Environmental Protection Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Pollution, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Water -wetlands, whaling; signed but not ratified: Kyoto Protocol,! Conservation of marine life.
Geography Note: Second largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic position along the sea coast between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (Magellan’s drink, Drake’s passage).


Population: 37,384,816 (July 2001 est.). Age structure: under 14: 26.54% (male 5,077,593; female 4,842,811); 15 to 64 years old: 63.04% (male 11,795,282; female 11,773,855); over 65: 10.42% (male 1,609,672; female 2,285,603) (2001 est.).
Age structure:
Population growth: 1.15% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 18.41 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 7.58 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 0.64 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; up to 15 years: 1.05 male / female; from 15 to 64 years old: 1 male / female; over 65: 0.7 male/female; for the general population: 0.98 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 17.75 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 75.26 years; men: 71.88 years; women: 78.82 years (2001 est.);
Total fertility rate: 2.44 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: 0.69% (1999).
Number of people infected with HIV: 130,000 (1999).
AIDS deaths: 1,800 (1999).
Nationality: noun: Argentine; adjective: Argentinian.
Ethnic groups: white (predominantly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo, Indians or other non-white groups 3%.
Believers: nominally Catholic 92% (less than 20% attend church), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%.
Language(s): Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French.
Literacy: definition: persons aged 15 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 96.2%; men: 96.2%; women: 96.2% (1995 est.). State Name:


Common long form: Argentine Republic;
conventional short form: Argentina; local long form: Republica Argentina local short form: Argentina
State structure: republic.
Capital: Buenos Aires.
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces and 1 federal district*: Buenos Aires; Jujuy; Catamarca; Cordova; Corrientes; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones; Neuquen; Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands; Rio Negro; Salta; San Louis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; San Juan; Tucuman; Federal District of Buenos Aires*; Formosa; Chaco; Chubut; Entre Rios; note: The US does not recognize territorial claims in Antarctica.
Dependent Territories:
Independence: from July 9, 1816 (until 1816 – the possession of Spain).
National holiday: Revolution Day, May 25 (1810).
Constitution: adopted May 1, 1853; revised August 1994.
Legal system: based on US and Western European legal systems; does not accept the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Fernando DELARUA (since 10 December 1999); Vice President Carlos “Chacho” ALVAREZ (Carlos Alberto “Chacho” ALVAREZ) resigned on October 6, 2000 and the post is still vacant; note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of the government: President Fernando DE LA ROY (since December 10, 1999); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
Government: cabinet appointed by the president; elections: the president and vice president are elected on a single list by universal suffrage for 4 years; elections last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held in October 2003); election results: Fernando DE LA ROY elected president; the percentage of votes received – 48.5%; note: the economic crisis caused widespread riots, as a result of which President DE LA ROY resigned on December 22, 2001.
Legislature: the bicameral National Congress consists of the Senate (72 seats; previously three members were appointed by the legislative assemblies of each province, now this order is changing and one third of the members of the Senate will be re-elected every two years for a six-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; half of the members are re-elected every two years, term of office – 4 years); Elections: Senate – the transitional phase will begin with the 2001 elections, when the entire Senate will be elected; by lot it will be determined which of the elected senators will serve two years, four years or the entire term, thus starting a closed cycle of renewal of the Senate by a third every two years; Chamber of Deputies – last held 24 October 1999 (next to be held October 2001); election results: Senate, percentage of votes cast for blocs or parties: NA; distribution of seats among blocs and parties: Peronists 40, UCR 20, Frepaso 1, others 11; Chamber of Deputies, percentage of votes cast for blocs or parties: no data; distribution of seats among blocs and parties: Alliance 124 (UCR 85, Frepaso 36, other 3), Peronists 101, AR 12, other 20.
Judiciary: Supreme Court, nine justices of the Supreme Court appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
Political Parties and Leaders: Action for the Republic (AR) (Domingo CAVALLOJ); Front for a United Country (Frepaso) (Carlos ALVARES) (coalition of four parties); Justice Party (PJ) (Carlos Saul MENEM [Carlos Saul MENEM]) (Peronist political party); Radical Civic Union (UCR) (Raul ALFONSIN); several provincial parties.
Political influence groups and their leaders: Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Laboratories (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (association of manufacturers); Argentine Rural Society (association of large landowners); business organizations; General Confederation of Labor (CGT) (properonist labor organization); the Peronist-dominated labor movement; Catholic Church; students.
Participation in international organizations: AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Guillermo Enrique GONZALEZ; office: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009; phone: [1] (202) 332-3171; fax: [\] (202) 238-6471; consulates general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York.
US Diplomatic Mission: Chief of Mission: Ambassador James D. WALSH; embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires; postal address: for international mail – the address of the embassy; ARC address: Unit 4334, ARC AA 34034; phone: [54] (11) 4777-4533, 4777-4534; fax: [54] (11) 4511-4997.
Description of the flag: three equal horizontal stripes of blue (top and bottom) and white (in the center) colors; in the center of the white band is a yellow sun with rays and a human face, known as the “May sun”.

Argentina Politics