Antigua and Barbuda Politics

Antigua and Barbuda Politics, Population and Geography

Background: Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the British Commonwealth in 1981. Approximately 3,000 refugees who fled the nearby island of Montserrat due to a volcanic eruption settled in Antigua and Barbuda in 1995. See to know more about Antigua and Barbuda History.


Location: Caribbean Sea, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east and southeast of Puerto Rico.
Geographical coordinates: 17° 03′ N. latitude, 61° 48’W e.
Reference map: Central America and the Caribbean.
Area: total: 442 sq. km. (Antigua 281 sq. km; Barbuda 161 sq. km); land surface area: 442 km2; water surface area: 0 km2; note: including Redonda Island.
Comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington DC.
Land borders: 0 km.
Coastline: 153 km.
Maritime claims: neutral waters: 24 nautical miles; continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the outer limits of the continent; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical marine; small seasonal temperature variations.
Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with a few volcanic uplands.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m; highest point: Peak Boggi 402 m
Natural resources: negligible; the climate is conducive to tourism.
Land use: arable land: 18%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 9%; forests and plantations: 11%; others: 62% (1993 est.).
Irrigated lands: no data.
Natural Hazards: Hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts.
Current environmental problems: the lack of fresh water (the main problem is related to the lack of natural sources) is exacerbated by cutting down trees for arable land, because of this, precipitation does not linger in the surface layer of the soil.
International environmental agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Change, Hazardous Waste, Law of the Sea, Marine Pollution, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed but not ratified: no.


Population: 66,970 (July 2001 OC).
Age structure: under 14: 27.97% (male 9,527; female 9,203); 15 to 64 years old: 67.15% (men 22,450; women 22,519); over 65: 4.88% (male 1,360; female 1,911) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 0.74% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 19.5 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 5.87 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -6.27 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.04 male/female; from 15 to 64 years old: 1 male/female; over 65: 0.71 male/female; for the general population: 0.99 male/female (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 22.33 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 70.74 years; men: 68.45 years; women: 73.14 years (2001 est.);
General birth rate: 2.31 children/wives. (2001 OTs.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
AIDS mortality: no data available.
Nationality: noun: resident of the island of Antigua, resident of the island of Barbuda; adjective: Antiguan, Barbuda.
Ethnic groups: Blacks, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrians.
Believers: Anglicans (majority), other Protestants, some Catholics.
Language(s): English (official), local dialects.
Literacy: Definition: Persons aged 15 and over who have completed five or more grades of school; for the general population: 89%; men: 90%; women: 88% (1960 est.).


Common long form: no;
Common short form: Antigua and Barbuda.
State structure: parliamentary constitutional monarchy on the model of English.
Capital: St. John’s.
Administrative divisions: 6 districts and 2 subordinate territories*: Barbuda*; Redonda*; St. John’s; St. George; Saint Mary; Saint Peter; Saint Pop; Saint Philip.
Dependent Territories:
Independence: November 1, 1981 (until 1981 – British possession).
National holiday: Independence Day, November 1 (1981).
Constitution: adopted November 1, 1981
Legal system: based on English common law.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since 1993);
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)
Government: council of ministers appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the prime minister; elections: no; hereditary monarchy; the governor-general is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; the prime minister is appointed by the governor general.
Legislature: the bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 members appointed by the Governor General) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation for five years); elections: House of Representatives – last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held March 2004); election results: distribution of votes between parties: no data; seat distribution by party: ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1.
Judiciary: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Saint Lucia, one of the judges is a resident of Antigua and Barbuda and presides over the Court of General Jurisdiction).
Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP) (Lester BIRD); People’s Movement of Barbuda (BPM) (Thomas FRANK [Thomas H. FRANK]); The United Progressive Party (UPP) (Baldwin SPENCER) is a coalition of three opposition parties: the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM), the United National Democratic Party (UNDP), and the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM).
Political pressure groups and their leaders: Antigua Labor and Labor Union (ATLU) (William ROBINSON); People’s Democratic Movement (PDM) (Hugh MARSHALL).
Participation in international organizations: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM ( observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO.
US Diplomatic Mission: Head of Mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST; office: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016; phone: [Ts (202) 362-5211; fax: {\] (202) 362-5225; Consulate General: Miami.
US Diplomatic Mission: The US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed June 30, 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda.
Flag Description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle whose base is the top side of the flag; the triangle consists of three horizontal bands of black (top), blue and white with a yellow rising sun on the black band.

Antigua and Barbuda Politics