Angola Politics

Angola Politics, Population and Geography

General information: The state of civil war has been the norm for Angola since 1975, when it achieved independence (until 1975 – a colony of Portugal). An armistice agreement signed in 1994 by the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) facilitated the incorporation of former UNITA rebels into the government and the armed forces. In April 1997, a government of national unity was established, but at the end of 1998, serious armed clashes began again, as a result of which hundreds of thousands of people left their homes. Over the past 25 years of armed clashes, about 1.5 million people have died. See to know more about Angola History.


Location: South Africa, Atlantic coast, between Namibia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Geographic coordinates: 12° 30′ S 18° 30′ E
Reference map: Africa.
Area: total: 1,246,700 km2; land surface area: 1,246,700 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: slightly less than twice the area of ​​the state of Texas.
Land borders: total length: 5,198 km; with neighboring states: with the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (220 km of which falls on the border of the province of Cabinda), with the Republic of the Congo 201 km, with Namibia 1,376 km, with Zambia 1,110 km.
Coastline: 1,600 km.
Maritime claims: neutral waters: 24 nautical miles; exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 12 nautical miles.
Climate: semi-arid in the south and along the coast to Luanda; in the north, a cool dry season (May to October) and a hot rainy season (November to April) alternate.
Terrain: narrow coastal plain, abruptly turning into a vast inland plateau.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m; highest point: Mount Morro de Moco 2,620 m.
Natural resources: oil, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium.
Land use: arable land: 2%; cultivated land: 0%; pastures: 23%; forests and plantations: 43%; others: 32% (1993 est.).
Irrigated land: 750 km2 (1993 oc).
Natural hazards: heavy prolonged rains causing periodic flooding on the plateau.
Actual environmental problems: excessive use of pastures, explained by the needs of the population and leading to soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rainforests, driven by both external demand for tropical timber products and internal demand for fuel, leading to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion causing water pollution and siltation of rivers and reservoirs; insufficient supply of drinking water.
International agreements on environmental protection: contributor: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Desertification, Ozone Layer Protection; signed but not ratified: no.
Geography note: The province of Cabinda is separated from the rest of the country by the territory of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


Population: 10,366,031 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 43.31% (male 2,266,870; female 2,222,262); 15 to 64 years old: 53.98% (male 2,847,089; female 2,748,091); over 65: 2.71% (male 127,798; female 153,921) (2001 est.)
Population growth: 2.15% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 46.54 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 24.68 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: -0.34 people /1000 people (2001 oc).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male/female; under 15: 1.02 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.04 male/female; over 65: 0.83 male/female; for the general population: 1.02 male/female. (2001 est.).
Child mortality: 193.72 deaths/1000 births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 38.59 years; men: 37.36 years; women: 39.87 years (2001 est.);
Total fertility rate: 6.48 children/wives. (2001 est.).
Proportion of adults infected with HIV: 2.78% (1999 est.).
Number of people infected with HIV: 160,000 bp. (1999 est.).
AIDS deaths: 15,000 deaths (1999 est.).
Nationality: noun: Angolan; adjective: Angolan.
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico (descendants of Europeans and native Africans) 2%, Europeans 1%, other 22%.
Believers: adherents of local beliefs 47%, Catholics 38%, Protestants 15% (1998 est.).
Language(s): Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages.
Literacy: definition: persons over 15 who can read and write; for the general population: 42%; men: 56%; women: 28% (1998 est.). State Name:


Common long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola; local long form: Republica de Angola; local short form: Angola; former: People’s Republic of Angola
State structure: provisional government; nominally a multi-party democracy with strong presidential power.
Capital: Luanda.
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces: Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Guambo, Guila, Zaire, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sup, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige.
Independence: November 11, 1975 (until 1975 – a colony of Portugal).
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (since 1975).
Constitution: adopted November 11, 1975; revised January 7, 1978, August 11, 1980, March 6, 1991 and August 26, 1992
Legal system: based on the Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified in line with political pluralism and the increased role of free market relations.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since September 21, 1979, note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
head of government: President José Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since September 21, 1979); note – the president is both head of state and head of government;
Government: a council of ministers appointed by the president; elections: President DOS SANTOS was originally elected (in 1979) in the absence of opposition under a one-party system and ran for re-election in Angola’s first multi-party elections on 28-29 September 1992, the last elections held to date (on date next election no data) election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, necessitating a second round of elections between him and Jonas SAVIMBI, the candidate in second place in terms of the number of votes (40.1%); the second round was not held, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), whose leader was SAVIMBI, did not recognize the results of the first round; the civil war resumed.
Legislature: unicameral National Assembly (220 members elected by proportional vote for a four-year term); elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next election date not known); election results: distribution of votes by parties – MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, other parties 12%; seats by party – MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, other parties 7.
Judiciary: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao), judges appointed by the president.
Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (PLD) (Analia de Victoria PEREIRA [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]); National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) (leadership challenged by: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBETO); National Union for the Complete Liberation of Angola (UNITA) (Jonas SAVIMBI), the largest opposition party, which for many years provided armed resistance to the government; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) (Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS), ruling party since 1975; Party of Social Renewal (PRS) (leadership challenged by: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO); Renewed UNITA (Eugenio NGOLO “Manuvakola”]); note: about a dozen small parties participated in the 1992 elections,
Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) (N’zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE); note: FLEC is divided into numerous factions, leading a small-scale armed struggle for the independence of the province of Cabinda.
Participation in international organizations: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.
Diplomatic representation in the USA: Head of Mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI; office: 1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036; phone: [1] (202) 785-1156; fax: [1] (202) 785-1258; consulates general: New York.
US Mission: Chief of Mission: Rev. Joseph G. SULLIVAN; embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda; mailing address: international mailing address: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; forwarding address: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550; phone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418; fax: [244] (2) 346-924.
Flag Description: two equal horizontal stripes of red (top) and black, with a yellow emblem that is located in the center and consists of a five-pointed star inside a gear half crossed by a machete (like a hammer and sickle).

Angola Politics