In Venezuela, large investments were made in the
early 2000s in education, which led to an increase in
the proportion of children attending school. However,
the recent crisis in the country has led to a severe
setback where many children no longer have any schooling
Formally, there is a compulsory schooling for ten
years, of which one year in preschool. The children
start regular school at the age of six. The compulsory
school is divided into low, middle and high schools of
three years each. To obtain a bachelor's degree requires
an additional two or three years of study.
Under President Hugo Chávez, much was done within the
framework of so-called missionaries, to attract poor and
unaccustomed Venezuelans to the school bench (see Modern
History and Social Conditions). The military was
dispatched to restore school buildings, and thousands of
schools were started where children received free food
and medical care. The proportion of pupils participating
in teaching increased at all levels.
Country facts of Venezuela, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
In a short time, the efforts that were made went
nothing. The economic, political and social crisis that
Venezuela is suffering (see Current Policy) is also
hitting hard on the school system. More and more schools
are forced to close, for days, weeks or indefinitely.
The reason may be that the electricity or water is
switched off. Teachers often fail - because they are
busy queuing up to buy food, or because they are not
getting any pay. According to estimates in 2016,
students missed an average of 40 percent of their
schooling and in the same year, 30 percent of school-age
children reported suffering from malnutrition. The
situation has not improved since then. Many children do
not go to school at all anymore. Among those who do,
some have problems with learning due to hunger.
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Children from poor families also often could not
previously afford to complete compulsory education, even
though education is free of charge at all levels.
Parents may pay for school uniforms and books. Two
shifts a day is the norm in state schools. Everyone has
The educational efforts made under Chávez have also
received criticism from teachers, parents and
oppositionists who believe that students are
indoctrinated with leftist political views. According to
the law, teaching must be based on the ideal of freedom
hero Simón Bolívar, for example Latin American unity and
national self-determination (see Older history).
Cooperation with socialist Cuba to increase literacy has
also been criticized for being too politically colored.
There are both state and private universities. The
State Universidad Central de Venezuela, with its main
campus in Caracas, was founded as early as 1721 and is
one of the oldest in the Western Hemisphere. The
university system has long had a reputation for being
among the better in Latin America, but the crisis is
also hitting hard here: students are missing out, people
are canceled, academics are fleeing the country.
Sources for this text
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
84.0 percent (2017)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
97.1 percent (2016)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
20.7 percent (2009)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
20.7 percent (2009)
HD close of newly elected MPs
Four newly elected MPs, from the state of Amazonas, will not be allowed to
take office when the parliament is convened after the New Year. Three of them
belong to the opposition alliance MUD and one government party PSUV. The
suspension means that the opposition will lose its super majority. The
opposition talks about a "legal bargain". A member of the PSUV is also
suspended. An additional six members whose status is also being questioned will
be given the go-ahead.
HD judges approved in extra session
Since President Cabello called for an extraordinary meeting at the last
ordinary meeting of the outgoing National Assembly on December 15, the members
of the new Supreme Court approve the case. This applies to 13 regular judges and
21 deputies who are replaced since their representatives resigned one year in
advance. The opposition is raging and calling the act unconstitutional. The
government also appointed 16 judges at the end of 2014 and can thus count on
great loyalty to the socialist party in the court, which will have decisive
influence if there is a power struggle between the executive (the president and
the government) and the legislative (the national assembly).
Big victory for the opposition in the parliamentary elections
Preliminary results indicate a convincing victory for the opposition and
Maduro acknowledges the defeat. When the result is clear, the Election Authority
announces that MUD will receive 112 seats and thus a two-thirds majority. The
largest party in the MUD is Justice First (PJ) with 33 seats followed by
Democratic Action (AD) with 25. PSUV gets 52 seats and two of its allies
remaining 3 seats. The voting figures are 56 percent for MUD and 41 percent for
PSUV. With a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly, the opposition is
given the opportunity, among other things, to convene a constituent assembly to
rewrite the Constitution, appoint the head of the electoral authority and
appoint judges in the Supreme Court. It may also be relevant to call for a
referendum to dismiss Maduro prematurely.
The appeal to allow election observers
In an open letter, more than 150 foreign congressmen also urge Maduro to let
observers from the EU and the OAS monitor the elections in December, and to
release imprisoned opposition leaders. The members of the legislative assemblies
in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru and the United States are behind
Sharp criticism from OAS
The head of the regional organization, Luis Almagro, criticizes Venezuela's
electoral system in an 18-page letter: he points out how the electoral district
has been redrawn, state funds are used to support the party's candidates, access
to the media is limited to the opposition, and how opposition politicians have
been imprisoned or prevented from standing. The criticism has been heard before
but is now unusually sharp. Almagro appeals to the Venezuelan government to
allow OAS observers.
Prosecutors call López a political prisoner
The prosecutor in the case against Leopoldo López, Franklin Nieves, leaves
the country and apologizes in a video recording for his role in what he now
calls a political trial. According to Nieves, the charges against López were
false; there was no evidence at all that he should have called for violence (see
Opposition politicians are arrested
Former presidential candidate Manuel Rosales is arrested when he returns to
Venezuela after six years of self-elected escape (see November 2008).
Rosales, who says he wants to take part in the parliamentary elections, is
accused of corruption during his time as governor of Zulia 2000-2008.
Relations with Guyana are normalized
Maduro meets Guyanese President Granger with UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon
and they agree to resume diplomatic relations (see July 2015).
Neighboring presidents agree to open the border
Maduro meets his Colombian counterpart Juan Manuel Santos in Ecuador and the
two agree to gradually open the border, one month after the first closure. In a
second step earlier in September, a section of the state of Zulia, south of
Táchira, has also been closed. Maduro then stated that an additional 3,000
soldiers would be sent to the area, where there were already around 5,000
Opposition leader López is sentenced to prison
Leopoldo López is sentenced to 13 years and 9 months in prison for incitement
to violence (see February 2014). Trouble breaks out outside the
courthouse, between his supporters and the faithful. According to his defense,
the trial was characterized by irregularities, among other things, the judge
must have heard 138 of the prosecutor's witnesses but only one of the 50
witnesses and evidence presented by the defense. López's family says he has been
in solitary confinement for most of the 19 months he has been detained. The
judgment against López is set by the Supreme Court in February 2017.
Daniel Ceballos is moved to house arrest
Daniel Ceballos is being moved from prison to house arrest, according to the
judge for health reasons (see March 2014 and May
and June 2015).
Border closure causes dispute with Colombia
Venezuela closes a section of the border with Colombia with reference to a
quarrel where smugglers must have injured three army officers and one civilian.
Maduro announces emergency permits in five municipalities in the state of
Táchira and sends 1,500 extra soldiers to guard at the border. The background is
the extensive smuggling of mainly oil and food (see also August 2014).
Maduro says the authorities must act against smugglers and "paramilitary right
groups" in the area. According to the president, the border will remain closed
until Colombia bans the sale of goods smuggled from Venezuela, and prevents
currency exchangers in the border town of Cúcuta from "attacking" the Venezuelan
currency. Several thousands of Colombians are expelled, which leads Colombia to
call its ambassador. Venezuela soon calls home its ambassador from Colombia.
The ambassador to Guyana is recalled
Maduro recalls Venezuela's ambassador to Guyana for consultations. The
President has accused the neighboring country of provoking support from the
United States. He has also demanded that Guyana put an end to the oil drilling
that Exxon Mobil devotes to (see May 2015). An international court ruled in 1899
that the area belonged to Guyana, which was then a British colony. Colombia has
made a protest because Maduro, in its decree in May, also claimed disputed
waters in the west.
The Government Party holds primary elections
PSUV holds primary elections ahead of the December elections, in all 87
Opposition leaders break hunger strike
Opposition leader Leopoldo López announces that he will suspend his hunger
strike, after a month. He has lost 15 pounds in a month. Daniel Ceballos is
reported to have ended the hunger strike after 20 days. Several other opposition
leaders are also reported to have launched hunger strikes.
Elections are announced at the last moment
The National Electoral Council (CNE) announces that the election to the
National Assembly will be held on December 6. The election is declared a record
center in relation to when it is to be held, something that the opposition has
been very critical of. The election must be held by December at the latest and
should actually be announced at least six months in advance, which was now
missed by a couple of weeks. Prior to the election, CNE has updated electoral
lengths and changed electoral districts - according to critics to strengthen
PSUV's chances. Four out of five members of CNE's board are open government
supporters. The electoral district changed similarly to the 2010 elections, when
the opposition alliance MUD received 52 percent of the vote but only 40 percent
of the mandate.
Spanish ex-head of government causes the government to collapse
Former Spanish Prime Minister Social Democrat Felipe González is denied a
visit to Leopoldo López during a visit to Venezuela. However, he meets MUD
representatives as well as the well-known Venezuelan journalist Teodoro Petkoff
who received a Spanish journalist award. Petkoff has been denied leave to go to
Spain and receive it himself. The criticism of González from government and
state media is merciless; he is called a "fascist drug dealer" and is said to be
sheltered in his home country. González leaves the country earlier than planned,
aboard a Colombian military plane sent by Colombia's President Santos. That too
causes Maduro to rage, and Colombia's ambassador is called in to give an
Oil finds lead to changed boundary drawing
Since the oil company Exxon Mobil reported that it found oil in the sea
extend President Maduro through a decree Venezuela's territorial waters in the
East. In doing so, the country formally claims a long-disputed sea area. Guyana
President David Granger accuses Venezuela of violating international law (see
Foreign Policy and Defense).
Foreign ex-presidents are refused to meet opposition leaders
Two Latin American former presidents, Andrés Pastrana of Colombia and Jorge
Quiroga of Bolivia, visit and request to visit opposition leaders Leopoldo López
and Daniel Ceballos in prison, but are denied by authorities saying they are
participating in a "hostile campaign" against the state. Pastrana, together with
Chile's ex-president Sebastián Pińera, tried to meet López in January, too, when
he was rejected.
Opposition leaders hunger strikes
Both opposition leaders Leopoldo López and Daniel Ceballos launch a hunger
strike in prison, demanding the release of political prisoners. In a smuggled
video recording, López demands that the government lift the censorship and set
the date for the parliamentary elections.
Primary elections in the opposition alliance
The opposition alliance MUD holds primary elections ahead of the
parliamentary elections to be held later in the year. The chaotic situation in
the country means that the opposition has strong hopes of making a good choice.
However, the MUD suffers from great fragmentation and is considered by many to
be dominated by an elite with poor popular roots. Daniel Ceballos is voted as a
candidate despite being in prison (see March 2014).
Inflation entails raising the minimum wage
President Maduro announces that the minimum wage will be increased by 30
percent in two steps until July, which means a real reduction in wages given the
high inflation. Capriles has claimed that anonymous sources in the central bank
state that inflation during the first four months of the year corresponds to 200
percent on an annual basis. The central bank has not published any figures since
December, when inflation was at 68.5 percent on an annual basis.
Short working hours should save electricity
The working hours for public employees should be reduced to 5.5 hours a day,
to keep the costs of air conditioning down. Extreme heat makes energy demand
unusually high, according to the government. Private companies are asked to use
their own generators to reduce the pressure on the national grid. Media reports
on power outages across the country.
Maduro gets extended powers of power
President Maduro demands the right to rule directly, without Parliament's
intervention, because of what he says is a threat from the United States. The
National Assembly gives Maduro the right to govern by decree year-round. He says
that he thereby has the power to "defend peace and sovereignty".
Venezuela is promised regional aid
The foreign ministers from all twelve countries in Unasur visit Caracas and
promise help with food, medicine and other shortages.
The United States is called upon to recall the majority of diplomats
The United States gets two weeks to call home most of its diplomats in
Venezuela. According to Foreign Secretary Delcy Rodríguez, the number of US
diplomats should amount to 17, the same number as Venezuela has in Washington,
which means that some 80 Americans must return home.
Caracas mayor is arrested
Camouflage-clad police break into the mayor's office in Caracas and remove
Mayor Antonio Ledezma. Maduro says that Ledezma must be responsible for all
crimes against "the country's peace and security". Hundreds of people gather at
the intelligence headquarters and demand that he be released. After a couple of
days, Ledezma is charged with conspiracy and it is decided that he will be held
in military prison until the trial. Of the 76 mayors in Venezuela who belong to
the opposition, 33 have now been prosecuted.
Couplings are reportedly revealed
The government again states that a coup attempt has been averted. Eleven
soldiers are designated as responsible, including a former Air Force General.
Several of them must have been seized and weapons seized. A businessman and two
leading opposition politicians are also identified. The politicians are Jorge
Borges, national coordinator for Caprile's Justice Party first, and Caraca's
mayor Antonio Ledezma.
A new exchange rate system is introduced
The new system is said to lead to the devaluation of the currency by 69
percent. Prices in public transport have just increased by 40 percent.
Shop owners arrested for "conspiracy"
The president states that owners of four store chains have been arrested
since they deliberately created long queues and "annoyed the Venezuelan people".
According to Maduro, many businessmen are part of a conspiracy with the
opposition to overthrow the government.
The President is accused of cracking down
President Diosdado Cabello is singled out in the conservative Spanish
newspaper ABC for conspiring with a narcotic with military links. The
accusations have been made even before. Cabello says he intends to take legal
action against ABC as well as the Venezuelan newspapers El Nacional and Tal Cual
for rendering the charges.
Venezuela in the UN Security Council
From the turn of the year, Venezuela has one of the temporary places of two
years in the Security Council, after being elected without competition to a
place of importance for Latin America and the Caribbean. The United States
blocked Venezuela's candidacy for a seat in 2006, but this time is believed to
have been one of ten countries that cast their votes in the vote. Rafael Ramírez
at the same time leaves the post of Foreign Minister and becomes a new UN
ambassador. New Foreign Minister becomes Delcy Rodríguez.