According to official statistics, virtually
all adult residents of Tajikistan can read and write,
but many are believed to be illiterate. The level of
education dropped sharply during the civil war in the
1990s, but now almost all children complete the nine
years to which compulsory schooling applies.
The compulsory schooling begins at the age of seven.
The compulsory school, which is free of charge, consists
of a four-year and a five-year stage. Among those who
drop out early are more girls than boys.
Country facts of Tajikistan, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
Almost every tenth child goes to preschool. The high
school is two years old. There are both vocational and
university preparatory courses.
The quality of teaching is often low. One fifth of
the school buildings were destroyed during the civil war
and many school premises are still in poor condition.
Often there are no proper classrooms, electricity and
drains. There is a shortage of books and other school
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Many Russian teachers left the country in the 1990s,
which led to an acute teacher shortage that has not yet
been fully resolved. The teachers who are present have
difficulty coping with the low wages and often have to
do other work alongside. Many qualified teachers are
In the capital Dushanbe there has been a Tajik
university since 1948 and since 1997 also a joint
Russian-Tajik Slav university. The Central Asian
University is a collaborative project between
Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, founded in 2000.
In addition, there are more than 30 other universities.
About 40 percent of college students are women.
Even before Tajik became official language in 1989, a
majority of the students were taught in this language.
There are also schools with teaching in Uzbek and other
languages. After 1989, all children must read Tajik from
the first class and greater emphasis is placed on
courses in Tajik literature, including classical Persian
literature. Since 2003, all children in Tajikistan must
re-read Russian in school.
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
97.7 percent (2017)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
99.8 percent (2014)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
16.4 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
16.4 percent (2015)
Currency speculation is stopped
The central bank orders that a thousand exchange offices be closed from
year-end. The intention is to reduce speculative trading with the domestic
currency Somoni, which during the year has fallen sharply in value.
Cult of personality is built around the president
Parliament unanimously decides to give President Rahmon the title of "Leader
of the Nation" for life. The decision means that he gets legal immunity as long
as he lives. At the same time, Parliament proposes creating a museum and library
dedicated to Rahmon's life's work.
More Russian soldiers to Tajikistan
The Russian Ministry of Defense announces that combat helicopters and
helicopters for military transport will be deployed in Tajikistan to strengthen
the Russian military presence there. The decision is made the day after
President Rahmon expressed his concern over the situation at the border with
Afghanistan during a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
International concern over mass arrests
UNHCR, UNHCR, European Security and Cooperation Organization OSCE, Human
Rights Watch, Amnesty International and US Government all express concern over
the arrests of Islamists and urge the Tajik authorities not to violate
international law in their fight against what they call "terrorism" "and"
Islamist Party is stamped
A court calls the Islamic Renewal Party a terrorist movement. The decision
gives the authorities the right to strike harder even against lower-level party
members. It also means that the party's newspaper Najat (Salvation) must be
closed and that all distribution of party information is prohibited. The party's
legal representative is arrested.
Thirteen Islamist politicians are arrested
Thirteen members of the Prohibited Islamic Renewal Party are arrested on
suspicion of contact with the Islamist group involved in breach of security
Islamist militias are wiped out
The government claims in the middle of the month that the security forces
have "eliminated" the entire Islamist militia group. General Nazarzoda is said
to be among the dead.
Bloody clashes with Islamist militia
Two days of fighting in and near the capital Dushanbe between security forces
and what is described as an Islamist militia are reported to require 35 lives,
nine of which are police. President Rahmon accuses the rebels of sympathizing
with the Islamic State terrorist movement. They are said to be led by General
Abduchalim Nazarzoda, who has just been dismissed from the post of Deputy
Minister of Defense. He is prosecuted in his absence for treason and terrorism.
The leading Islamist party is banned
The Ministry of Justice bans the Islamic Renewal Party and orders that all
party departments in the country be dissolved. A planned party congress is set
and the party headquarters in Dusjanbe is vacated and closed. The government
points out that the party has too few members to comply with the rules of
political parties. In the March elections, the Islamic renewal party lost its
seats in Parliament (see also Political system). A day later, the Interior
Ministry accuses the party of also having contact with the Islamic State (IS)
terror group, which is mainly active in Syria and Iraq.
Extremists will lose citizenship
Unanimously adopts a law requiring all Tajiks who join foreign extremist
terrorist movements to be deprived of their citizenship; About 400 Tajiks are
estimated to have joined the Islamic State (IS) in Iraq and Syria. Among them is
a colonel who was previously the head of the Ministry of the Interior's special
forces and who in May announced in a video that he had gone to IS in protest
against what he perceived as the Tajik government's anti-Islamic policy.
Young people are forbidden to make a pilgrimage
The government bans Tajiks under the age of 35 from carrying out hajj, the
pilgrimage to Mecca. The decision is believed to be an attempt to prevent young
men from being radicalized and joining extremist movements.
Stiff campaign against Islamists
At a conference on the work against Islamic extremism, the people are invited
to demand that the Islamic renewal party be stamped as a terrorist organization.
Campaign against Islamist party
At the end of the month, the imams in a number of mosques are calling on the
country's Muslims to demand that the Islamic renewal party be banned. A letter
circulating in the mosques states that the best way to protect the country from
Islamist extremists is to dissolve the party.
The president's son leads the fight against corruption
President Rahmon appoints his eldest son, 27-year-old Rustam Emomali, to head
the country's anti-corruption authority.
Democracy activists are imprisoned
Two democracy activists are each sentenced to 16.5 years in prison for
insulting President Rahmon, being a member of Group 24 and planning to try to
overthrow the government. Both men are said to have admitted "partially guilty"
but denied membership in Group 24.
Opposition politicians are murdered in Istanbul
Umarali opposition politician Umarali Quvvatov is shot dead in a street in
Istanbul. Quvvatov led the banned organization Group 24 (see December 2012).
The ruling party wins in contested elections
Parliamentary elections are held following an electoral movement that,
according to international observers, including the OSCE, has been "virtually
invisible". The only opposition parties of any significance, the Islamist IRPT
and the Social Democrats, have complained that they have been exposed to
political pressure during their campaigns. President Rahmon's ruling People's
Democratic Party wins 51 out of 63 seats, while the two opposition parties The
Islamic renewal party and the Social Democratic party are unable to pass the
five percent block. A handful of small parties receive one or a few mandates
each. Foreign observers and opposition representatives judge the election as
characterized by gross cheating and secrecy. Individuals have been able to vote
multiple times or cast their votes for the whole family, electoral judges have
told voters whom they should vote for, voting has been done without
transparency, ballot papers have been filled up with ballots in advance. In
addition, the state media has given all the attention to the government party
during the election campaign and did not let the opposition speak out.