The education level in Chad is generally very
low. The school system has been hampered by war as well
as lack of money and educated teachers. In some rural
areas, there are no schools at all.
Only a third of the country's adult population can
read and write. Among women, the proportion is even
lower. In the age group up to 15 years, every other
person can read and write.
Country facts of Chad, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
Officially there is ten years of compulsory schooling
from the age of six. After the elementary school, which
covers six years, two higher stages follow for four and
three years respectively.
Slightly more than four out of five children start
primary school, but just over a third of students
complete the first six years. The connection to the next
stage is even lower. Only about a fifth of all children
read on. The proportion of girls is significantly lower
than the proportion of boys at all levels of the school
State schools dominate in the south. In the north,
many Muslim parents send their children to Quran
Formally, education is free of charge but in practice
the parents pay a fee for tuition. School uniforms,
books and school supplies also cost money. In the
countryside, it is not uncommon for parents to also
stand on premises and pay teachers' salaries.
There is a university in the capital N'Djamena and
some technical colleges.
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FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
74.2 percent (2016)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
22.3 percent (2016)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
12.5 percent (2013)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
12.5 percent (2013)
Ethnic violence and social unrest
Five people are killed in N'Djamena in a clash between members of the zagawa
and Kreda people groups. The fight is triggered by a football match but will
continue later. The insanity is believed to have been fueled by widespread
dissatisfaction in society with deteriorating living conditions in the wake of
the falling oil price. Public employees have not been paid salaries for several
months. Teacher strikes mean that three million school children must stay home.
President Déby and most of the military elite belong to zagawa.
Déby makes the presidential speech
President Déby is installed for his fifth term. The ceremony is preceded by
protest demonstrations in which a man is killed. The opposition reiterates that
Déby's election victory is a "political robbery". Chad was characterized by
social unrest during the year, with several strikes among public employees who
received their wages late. When a schoolgirl was subjected to a group rape by
sons of high-ranking officials, protests erupted around the country, which were
defeated by harsh methods.
The opposition merges with Déby
Twenty-seven opposition parties join forces in the Fonac alliance to try to
prevent President Déby from being elected to a fifth term in office.
Habré is sentenced to life imprisonment
Chad's President Hissène Habré is sentenced to life in prison for crimes
against humanity in a court in Senegal's capital Dakar. Habré is found guilty of
the death of 40,000 people during his reign from 1982 to 1990. The Court acts on
behalf of the African Union (AU).
President Déby reelected
President Déby wins the presidential election with 61 percent of the vote.
UNDP leader Saleh Kebzab gets 13 percent. Trea becomes Laoukein Médard, mayor of
Moundou. UNDP and a number of other opposition parties refuse to approve the
election result, claiming that Debby's victory is based on cheating.
Dismissal of the Election Commission
The union central organization UST and three civil rights movements submit
their missions in, among other things, the Election Commission in protest of the
government's actions ahead of the impending presidential election. The drop-off
is triggered by the arrest of four activists since they called for protests
against the government. The UST and the other organizations are also canceling
their participation in Chad's Economic and Social Councils, institutions that
monitor how oil revenues are used and a forum for political dialogue.
Protests against Debby's re-election
The capital city of N'Djamena and a number of other Chadian cities will be
locked in close proximity to demonstrations against President Debby's attempt to
be re-elected in April. A large part of the economic activity is down. The
demonstrations are organized by a number of voluntary organizations and other
groups that have joined the alliance ça suffit ("it is enough" in French). The
anger against the government is fueled by the news of a gang rape on a young
woman earlier this month. The perpetrators are said to have been three sons of
high-ranking military and the son of the country's foreign minister. Two young
people were shot to death by security forces during student protests that were
triggered when the rape became known.
Pahimi Padacké new Prime Minister
President Déby appoints MP and former Minister of Justice Albert Pahimi
Padacké as new Prime Minister. No explanation is given for the change of head of
government, but it is seen as an attempt by Déby to strengthen his position
before the presidential election in April.
President Déby is running for re-election
President Déby announces that he is running for a fifth term in the April 10
election. If he wins, he intends to push through a constitutional change so that
the time of future presidents in power is limited "to revitalize democracy".
Presidential elections will be held in April
The Election Commission announces presidential elections until April 10. Two
opposition politicians announce their candidacies.