Large investments have
been made in education during the 2000s and the
proportion of children attending school has increased.
However, many schools are poorly equipped and teachers
often have insufficient education and poor pay.
Moreover, the entire educational system is also
threatened by major cuts.
The compulsory compulsory school was extended by one
year in 2005, to nine years, and in 2009 it was decided
that compulsory schooling should also include two years
of preschool. The expansion of the preschool has dragged
on over time, but a majority of the children now go at
least a year before they start first grade at the age of
Country facts of Brazil, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
The Länder are responsible for the compulsory school
which is divided into two stages. Schooling is free of
charge in public schools, but it is common for students
to pay for school uniforms. After elementary school
follows three years of high school.
Many poor parents are forced to let their children
work instead of going to school. The situation is most
difficult in the countryside and not least in the poor
northeast. In order to remedy the problem, a grant was
introduced in 2003 to cover loss of income if the
children attend school, within the framework of the
Bolsa família family support program (see also Social
conditions). The program has helped significantly more
children attend school. But the quality is often low and
it is crowded in schools where teaching has to be done
in shifts. Children are generally allowed to walk either
in the morning or in the afternoon, and in some cases a
third evening shift occurs. The deterioration of
finances in recent years has also caused the proportion
of children who drop out prematurely to rise again.
In addition, following Jair Bolsonaro's take-over as
president on January 1, 2019, decisions have been made
on extensive austerity and cuts in funding for
everything from preschool to university. Just a few
months after the change of power, a decision had been
made to reduce the equivalent of $ 87 million for
primarily school books in primary schools. The
universities receive 30 percent less money to cover
costs, which promptly prompted several schools to face
the risk of having to close down as they cannot pay
their electricity and water bills. The same reduction
applies to grants for students at the master's and
doctoral level, which means that tens of thousands can
be forced to leave their studies.
Bolsonaro and his right-wing radical government have
also stormed "left ideologies" in schools and have
criticized humanistic subjects as unnecessary.
For those who can afford to pay, there are private
schools that usually hold a higher standard than the
public schools. Many high school students attend private
schools run primarily by religious communities.
Literacy among adults has increased to just over 90
percent according to official statistics. But the
reading and writing skills are in many cases very
The education is free of charge at public colleges
and universities, which are run under federal, state and
municipal government. However, most of the country's
over 2,000 universities and colleges are private. Since
2012, there has been a quota system for correcting the
social carpenter recruitment to higher education, which
generally holds a high class.
- Searchforpublicschools: Offers schooling information of Brazil in each level - compulsory, technical and higher education programs.
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
95.5 percent (2016)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
92.0 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
16.2 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
16.2 percent (2015)
Ambassador to Venezuela expelled
Venezuela expels Brazil's ambassador to Caracas, Ruy
Pereira, citing that Brazil acted illegally when
ex-president Dilma Rousseff was deposed in August 2016.
Two days later, Brazil expels Venezuela's
highest-ranking diplomat in the country.
The president does not have to resume legal
For the second time, Temer will succeed in just over
two months from being put on trial, after a vote in the
Chamber of Deputies. Even now, a two-thirds majority had
been required in support of a trial, but only 233
members voted in court, while 251 voted against. The
rash was expected. In recent weeks, themes that have
been accused of corruption and obstruction of justice
have brought influential members to meetings on key
issues and thus secured support. The investigation
against Temer can thus be resumed as soon as he leaves
the post after the 2018 election.
Former Olympic manager is prosecuted
Former head of Brazil's Olympic Committee (COB),
Carlos Nuzman, is formally charged with corruption in
connection with the 2016 Summer Olympics. Nuzman is
charged with money laundering, violation of currency
laws and for leading a criminal organization. He has
been incarcerated for two weeks but is now set free,
albeit with travel restrictions. The indictment also
includes a Senegalese former member of the International
Olympic Committee (IOC) and his son, Brazilian
businessman Arhur Soares, former COB employee Leonardo
Gryner and former Rio Governor Sérgio Cabral (see also
Vote for independence in the south
The three states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and
Santa Catarina hold an informal vote to form their own
state. The vote is organized by the independence
movement "The South is my country", which was inspired
by the latest events in Spanish Catalonia. According to
the movement, there is a strong desire among the
inhabitants of the south to break away from the rest of
Brazil with its corrupt rule.
The Renca reserve should not be opened for mining
The harsh criticism from, among other things,
environmental organizations in the country and abroad
leads to the government withdrawing its decision to
allow foreign private mining in the Amazon-rich Renca
mineral reserve (see August).
New corruption charges against Temer
The Supreme Court rejects a motion by President Temer
to replace the prosecutor, Rodrigo Janot, who is leading
the corruption investigation against him. The court
agrees with its decision. Temer claims that Janot in the
process against him violated his legal and
constitutional powers. Janot formally accuses the
president of violating lawsuits, bribery and leading a
criminal organization. For the case to proceed to
Congress, the Supreme Court must give its approval. And
in order for it to be a trial, two-thirds of the Chamber
of Deputies must vote for Temer to be suspended from
office. At the same time, the president has record low
opinion figures, as his support is down to 5 percent.
FIn addition to the president, the indictment includes
six other high-ranking politicians, including Temer's
chief of staff Eliseu Padilha. However, Janot will not
be able to run the case himself when he leaves his post
on September 18.
Many millionaires are arrested in corruption,
following HD decisions
Joesley Batista, multi-millionaire and one of the
owners of JBS, the world's largest meat packaging
company (see May 2017), is arrested
along with Ricardo Saud, former head of the holding
company J&F Investimentos, after a ruling in the Supreme
Court. This is done after a decision by one of the
Supreme Court judges, which cancels the immunity from
prosecution previously negotiated by the parties. This
is done at the request of the Prosecutor Rodrigo Janot
since a new tape recording, which is believed to have
been submitted to the Prosecutor by mistake, suggesting
that Batista and Saud have been assisted by former
Prosecutor Marcelo Miller ahead of the prosecution
hearing in May. They should also have discussed crimes
that are not covered by the previous settlement. Later,
another JBS manager, Wesley Batista, who is also brother
of Joesley, is arrested.
Prosecution is brought against Lula and Rousseff
Brazil's state prosecutor Rodrigo Janot is
prosecuting former presidents Lula da Silva and Dilma
Rousseff as well as six other members of the Labor Party
for forming a criminal organization aimed at misusing
funds from the oil company Petrobras. The charges are
linked to the corruption scandal involving the
procurement of contracts between the country's largest
construction companies and Petrobras during the period
2002 to 2016. Part of the money has gone to bribe
politicians. This is the first time Rousseff has been
indicted in a criminal case while Lula has already been
convicted in a case that has been appealed (see
July 2017). According to the new indictment,
Lula was the leader of the criminal organization, whose
members have received a total of $ 480 million in
bribes. Both ex-presidents refuse crime.
Reserves are opened for mining
President Temer announces that a protected area in
the Amazon should be opened for mining. The so-called
Renca reserve, to the surface as a tenth of Sweden, was
established in 1984 and is believed to be rich in gold
and copper, among other things. The criticism of the
plans will be harsh, but the government claims that
neither the environment nor the people of origin in the
area are threatened. After a week, the order is
temporarily suspended in court on the grounds that the
decision must be taken by Congress.
Ex-President Collor is charged with corruption
Senator Fernando Collor de Mello, who was president
from 1990-1992, is accused of receiving the equivalent
of around $ 9 million in bribes and is charged with
"passive corruption", money laundering and blackmail.
The Supreme Court has unanimously decided to give the
go-ahead despite the prosecution immunity Collor enjoys
as a senator. Collor is the third senator to be
prosecuted under the Petrobrass scandal. The crime must
have been committed between 2010 and 2014 and involve
transactions in a subsidiary of Petrobras.
The president does not have a trial
Congress votes against putting President Temer on
trial for corruption, with numbers 263–227. A two-thirds
majority was required to get the Supreme Court to raise
the case. The vote is preceded by an upset debate and
chaotic scenes where members were pushed and threw fake
notes at each other.
Military should fight crime
The Armed Forces deploy 8,500 soldiers to fight
organized crime in the state of Rio de Janeiro: They
will be joined by 1,500 police. Violence has risen
sharply in the state where over 90 police officers have
been killed in the service just this year. President
Temer has now issued a decree for the military to stay
in Rio de Janeiro year-round.
Ex-President Lula is sentenced to prison
Lula da Silva (President 2003–2011) is sentenced to
9.5 years in prison for corruption. According to the
judgment, his wife was given access to a luxury
apartment by a construction company, in exchange for the
company being awarded a contract for the oil company
Petrobras. Lula denies the crime and claims that the
charges are aimed at preventing him from running for
president in the 2018 presidential election. He remains
on hold pending the appeal. However, a judge decides
that his assets should be frozen until further notice.
This applies to apartments, cars, land and a bank
deposit with nearly $ 200,000.
Former minister is arrested on charges of corruption
A former minister, Geddel Vieira Lima, with close
ties to President Temer, is arrested in connection with
a police investigation into corruption in a
state-controlled bank, Caixa Economica Federal.
The President is charged with bribery
The prosecutor decides to prosecute President Michel
Temer for taking bribes. He is accused of receiving
money from the head of the meat giant JBS (see also
May 2017). The Congress will now decide
whether or not the case will be tried in the Supreme
US stops meat imports
The US decides to stop all imports of meat from
Brazil, due to concerns about the quality of the meat
following the disclosures made in March. At that time,
the US did not impose a ban on imports, but instead
carried out strict controls.
Scientists warn of the dam construction
An international research team warns that plans to
build 428 water ponds in the Amazon - three times more
than what already exists - pose a serious threat to the
environment. The dam construction can also pose a threat
to the water resources in the region, the researchers
Ex-governor gets jail for corruption
Yet another beast falls into the Petrobras scandal
when Rio de Janeiro's former Governor Sérgio Cabral is
sentenced to 14 years in prison for corruption and money
laundering. Cabral, who has been detained since November
2016, is a member of the PMDB and served as governor for
two terms, 2007–2014. He is later convicted of a number
of other corruption offenses to what total will be 180
years in prison.
Judgment gives Temer respite
The Supreme Court of Justice votes with the numbers
4–3 for not invalidating the results of the 2014
presidential election and thus President Temer can be
temporarily exhaled. The opposite result would have
probably meant that he had to resign, as he was Dilma
Rousseff's vice presidential candidate in the election.
A few days earlier, the Electoral Court had reopened an
investigation into whether illegal funding determined
the outcome of the 2014 election.
The recession is over
The economy is reported to have grown by 1 percent
during the first quarter of the year, and thus the
longest recession in Brazil's history is over. Growth
has been negative for two years, with the economy
shrinking by 8 percent. A record harvest of soybeans has
now contributed to the turnaround. But economists warn
that it is too early to blow the danger: 14 million
people are unemployed and the increased political
uncertainty surrounding President Temer means that
developments are uncertain. The stock market crashed
when the suspicions against him became public.
Violent protests against the government
24th of May
The bribery charges against Temer trigger extensive
protests. In Brazil, tens of thousands of protesters
demand that the president resign and the election is
announced, and that austerity policies are scrapped. The
protests are violent, several department buildings are
vandalized and the police use tear gas and rubber-coated
bullets to stop the protesters. Finally, through a
decree, Temer implements the military to protect public
buildings in Brasilia, supported by a law-and-order
guarantee that can be used when the police are under
pressure. However, the decree raises strong criticism
both from the opposition and from the local authorities
in Brasilia, who say they have not been informed, and
are already lifted the following day.
Temer tries to stop the investigation
President Temer sends a written request to the
Supreme Court to close the investigation against him,
which concerns corruption and obstruction of justice.
His lawyers claim that the recording is of no value as
evidence when edited 70 times. After a few days,
however, Temer changes and wants the investigation to
continue, so that he can be cleansed.
Bribery charges against Temer
President Temer is drawn into a bribe when the
magazine O Globo reports that there are recordings where
he discusses bribes to the now incarcerated former
Speaker Eduardo Cunha for keeping him quiet. The
recordings must have been made by brothers Joesley and
Wesley Batista, owners of the world's largest meat
producer JBS. The President dismisses the allegations,
but the very next day the Supreme Court announces that
there is sufficient evidence to investigate the
Zika is no longer an acute threat
The national emergency that happened due to the zika
virus ceases when the number of new cases has decreased
by 95 percent compared to 2016. Between January and
April, 8,000 new cases were found, compared with 170,000
in the same period the year before.
The Fundai chief dismissed
The head of Fundai, which handles issues pertaining
to indigenous peoples, gets fired. Antonio Costa himself
says that the reason is that he was "too honest" and
that he defended the rights of the urinals. According to
Costa, he has refused to employ 20 people recommended by
the government because "they have never seen a resident
of their lives". Funai has cut its budget by more than
40 percent. The Ministry of Justice dismisses the
allegations and says the agency needs a "more efficient"
management. Human rights organizations have raised
alarms about a sharp increase in attacks on indigenous
peoples in Brazil.
General strike against pension reforms
The first general strike of over two decades is held
in protest of the government's plans to raise the
retirement age for civil servants, and other changes in
pension systems and labor law. Schools are kept closed
in many places and public transport in big cities is at
a standstill. Demonstrations are also held in many parts
of the country. The protest is the most widespread
against the Temer government so far.
Indigenous people protest in Brasilia
26th of April
Thousands of indigenous peoples' representatives are
demonstrating in the capital with demands for
strengthened rights against farmers and forest companies
that infringe on their lands. Clashes with police occur.
According to the campaign leaders, 13 Indians were
killed in connection with land conflicts in 2016.
New bribery investigations against top politicians
The Petrobrass scandal is screwed up yet another lap
when a judge orders investigations against 108 people,
including nine ministers and a large number of
congressmen. Among the suspects are President Temer's
chief of staff, a former mayor of Rio de Janeiro and
four former presidents.
Ex-President sentenced to prison
Former House Speaker Eduardo Cunha is sentenced to 15
years and 4 months in prison for corruption, money
laundering and tax evasion.
Meat scandal strikes against trade
In a comprehensive police operation, it is revealed
that meat packing companies have sold substandard and
rotten meat for years. As a result, China and Hong Kong
temporarily halt all beef and chicken imports from
Brazil, and the EU is also considering measures.
The recession the worst so far
Brazil is in the deepest decline since it began to
measure, according to new figures. The economy shrank by
3.6 percent in 2016, which means it is now 8 percent
lower than in December 2014. Unemployment is estimated
at 12.6 percent. The country has been hit hard by
falling commodity prices on the world market, while the
economic crisis is frightening investors.
The Foreign Minister resigns
In yet another setback for President Temer,
74-year-old Foreign Minister José Serra announces that
he is leaving his post, for health reasons. A total of
six ministers and another close employee have now
resigned since Temer took office.
New President appointed
The Senate appoints the businessman and millionaire
Eunício Oliveira as new president, although he is also
under investigation in the Petrobras scandal. The
election is a victory for Temer as Oliveira is close
ally and has a central role in PMDB. Outgoing Speaker
Calheiros assumes Oliveira's previous role as PMDB's
leader in the Senate (see also December 2016).
Breakthrough in the corruption investigation
30th of January
Police seize an eager business mogul, Eike Batista,
who returns to the country from New York. Batista, who
has been known as Brazil's richest man, is accused of
paying $ 16.5 million in bribes to former Rio de Janeiro
Governor Sérgio Cabral, who himself is in jail. The same
day that Batista is arrested, it is also announced that
77 testimonies linked to Odebrecht were formally
approved by HD, which is regarded as an important step
in the investigation of the entire major corruption
scandal. The testimony points to leading politicians
from all three major parties, including President Temer.
They are also believed to contain charges against two
leading presidential candidates ahead of the 2018
election: Lula and Aécio Neves.
HD judge dies in plane crash
The judge of the Supreme Court, Teori Zavascki, the
chief responsible for the Petrobras investigation, dies
when his plan crashes into the sea off Paraty in the
south. The opposition suspects that a crime could be
behind the crash. Zavascki led the investigation of,
among others, Odebrecht, the building conglomerate,
which acknowledged that it paid $ 1 billion in bribes to
secure contracts in twelve countries. The HD judge Edson
Fachin is later elected to replace Zavascki as the main
responsible for the huge corruption investigation.
Justice Minister Alexandre de Moraes is nominated a few
weeks later as a new HD judge.
Military is deployed after prison riots
Since a third violent prison riot occurred in
January, outside the city of Natal in the Northeast, the
government is ordering the defense to help guard the
country's overcrowded prisons. The recent outbreak of
violence demanded the life of 26 prisoners. Earlier this
month, around 60 interns were killed in Manaus in the
Amazon. A few days later, over 30 prisoners were killed
in a prison in Roraima. The violence, which has been
extremely brutal in all three cases, is said to be part
of a fight between criminal gangs over control of
cocaine trafficking. President Temer has announced that
the equivalent of $ 250 million will be invested in
building new prisons.
Record trade surplus
Brazil notes a foreign trade surplus of the
equivalent of $ 48 million in 2016. The reason is that
imports fell even more than the declining exports,
mainly of oil, cars and sugar.
Violent prison riot
Some 60 interns are killed in a very violent clash
between rival gangs at a prison in Manaus in the state
of the Amazon. Close to 200 manage to escape in
connection with the rally, but many are soon captured
again. A few days later, over 30 prisoners are killed in
a similar brutal clash in a prison in the state of