When Azerbaijan suffered from Tsarist Russia,
the country was a center of learning for the Muslims of
the kingdom, but at the same time the majority of the
Azeri were illiterate. During the Soviet era (1920–1991)
literacy increased from less than 10 percent in the
mid-1920s to almost 100 percent in 1970.
After independence from the Soviet Union, the school
system has been given reduced resources.
Country facts of Azerbaijan, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
There is nine years of compulsory schooling from the
age of six. Almost all children complete primary school.
Nearly one in four children attend voluntary preschool,
while just under half of the students attended high
school in the early 2010s.
There are around 50 institutions of higher education,
of which over a dozen are private universities. The
great economic importance of the oil industry to the
country means that many students choose to study in
technical professions, including at the State Oil and
Chemistry Institute, which was founded in 1920. Many
highly educated have left the country.
- Searchforpublicschools: Offers schooling information of Azerbaijan in each level - compulsory, technical and higher education programs.
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
93.7 percent (2017)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
99.8 percent (2016)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
8.2 percent (2016)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
8.2 percent (2016)
Elections announced for February
President Ailyev will issue a decree dissolving Parliament and holding
elections at the beginning of next year. The election date is set for February
9. It is eight months before the scheduled date - November 1, 2020.
Parliament votes for new elections
The MPs call on President Aliyev to dissolve Parliament and call for new
elections as soon as possible. The proposal is adopted with 99 votes in favor
and one against. No justification is given, but a week earlier, the New
Azerbaijan leader has said that "Parliament's composition must be renewed as
part of the reforms carried out by President Aliyev". In October, the government
was reformed following criticism by President Aliyev (see October 8,
Police stop protest
A couple of dozen regime critics are arrested when the police prevent the
Opposition Equality Party (Müsavat) from conducting a protest against lack of
freedom of assembly at the Baku City Hall. The party's chairman Arif Hacılı (in
English often spelled Gadjily) is already arrested in advance. It was intended
that the demonstration would coincide with the anniversary of the constitution
adopted by Azerbaijan in 1995, in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet
Union. The Constitution states that the country must be a democracy.
Protests of the Popular Front are broken
The opposition party People's Front is trying to demonstrate in central Baku
against low wages, corruption and lack of democracy. Leader Ali Karimli (Əli
Kərimli) is arrested, and after him at least 80 party mates, witnesses told
Reuters news agency.
The promise of gun-free service did not become law
The European Court of Human Rights convicts Azerbaijan to pay damages to five
people, all members of the community of Jehovah's Witnesses who were convicted
of refusal to do military service. The state has pledged before the Council of
Europe to enable arms-free service, but has not adopted any law permitting it,
the court points out.
The President replaces employees
Ali Asadov, the time of the owners financial adviser and long-standing ally
of President Ilham Aliyev, will be the new prime minister. The N gene, explain
why predecessor resigned suddenly. Two weeks later, other people in the
president's immediate circle are also replaced, among them the longtime head of
the presidential office. Aliyev, during the month, makes statements criticizing
the government, which he accuses of opposing reforms. Among the people who are
petitioned from their positions of power are several who have been influential
ever since Father Heydar Aliyev's time.
Attacks on Mayor
In the country's second largest city Gəncə, an assassination testifies to
dissatisfaction with the governing body. Mayor Elmar Veliyev faces an
assassination attempt, which according to authorities is carried out by an
extremist trained by Islamists in Syria. City dwellers give a slightly different
picture of the events, but also it stems from the fact that religious circles
feel persecuted by the secular regime. The mayor is described as imperious and
accused of treating the city as his personal loan. A suspect for the murder
attempt is arrested and two police officers are killed a week later when the
arrest triggers protests.
Ignored in court, penalty is expected
In August 2018, opposition leader Ilgar Mammadov (İlqar Məmmədov) was
released conditionally. He had been forced to sit in prison for five years
despite the fact that the European Court of Human Rights had already concluded
in 2014 that the prison country was illegal and constituted a violation of an
international human rights convention. Now the Council of Europe will allow a
Council of Ministers to decide how to act against Azerbaijan also choosing to
ignore the court's ruling.
Activists among pardoned prisoners
The president pardons 431 prisoners. Among those covered by the amnesty are
dozens of activists who are referred to as political prisoners. Some of them
belong to a youth movement called Nida.
Armenia on military exercise: "Weapon rattle"
11th of March
Azerbaijan is launching a major military exercise. The exercise will last for
five days and involve 10,000 soldiers, 500 armored vehicles, 20 fighter aircraft
and up to 300 artillery units. Neighboring Armenia states in a statement that
the exercise hardly fosters peace. The two countries have long disagreed with
Nagorno-Karabakh, an enclave held by Armenian forces but surrounded by
Azerbaijani territory. A time has been planned for the country's highest leaders
to meet, but no date has been set.
Adults are vaccinated against measles
4th of March
A vaccination campaign targeting adults aged 20-40 will be implemented in
Baku and other cities in the spring. Since December, about 150 cases have been
reported - and almost everyone who has been infected is adults. The neighboring
countries have discovered significantly more cases, but the infection raises
concerns nonetheless, as many have not been vaccinated as children.
Criticism against the state for the treatment of activists
The European Court of Human Rights has concluded that the Baku government
will pay the equivalent of SEK 175,000 in damages to the tomb reporter and
activist Khadija Ismajilova (Xədicə İsmayılova) as a result of her private life
being violated. Ismajilova was blackmailed in 2012 - including a sex video
filmed with a hidden camera in her home, a video posted online - and the state
has neglected to investigate the incident. The court says it has not been
possible to prove that it was the state itself that was behind the infringement.
For a number of years, Ismajilova examined the regime of Aliyev, which in
various ways has put obstacles in the way of scrutiny (see December 21,